human development

human development

 the process of growth and change that takes place between birth and maturity.

      Human growth is far from being a simple and uniform process of becoming taller or larger. As a child (child development) gets bigger, there are changes in shape and in tissue composition and distribution. In the newborn infant (infancy) the head represents about a quarter of the total length; in the adult it represents about one-seventh. In the newborn infant the muscles constitute a much smaller percentage of the total body mass than in the young adult. In most tissues, growth consists both of the formation of new cells and the packing in of more protein or other material into cells already present; early in development cell division predominates and later cell filling.

Types and rates of human growth
      Different tissues and different regions of the body mature at different rates, and the growth and development of a child consists of a highly complex series of changes. It is like the weaving of a cloth whose pattern never repeats itself. The underlying threads, each coming off its reel at its own rhythm, interact with one another continuously, in a manner always highly regulated and controlled. The fundamental questions of growth relate to these processes of regulation, to the program that controls the loom, a subject as yet little understood. Meanwhile, height is in most circumstances the best single index of growth, being a measure of a single tissue (that of the skeleton; weight is a mixture of all tissues, and this makes it a less useful parameter in a long-term following of a child's growth). In this section, the height curves of girls and boys are considered in the three chief phases of growth; that is (briefly) from conception to birth, from birth until puberty, and during puberty. Also described are the ways in which other organs and tissues, such as fat, lymphoid tissue, and the brain, differ from height in their growth curves. There is a brief discussion of some of the problems that beset the investigator in gathering and analyzing data about growth of children, of the genetic and environmental factors that affect rate of growth and final size, and of the way hormones act at the various phases of the growth process. Lastly, there is a brief look at disorders of growth. Throughout, the emphasis is on ways in which individuals differ in their rates of growth and development.

      The changes in height of the developing child can be thought of in two different ways: the height attained at successive ages and the increments in height from one age to the next, expressed as rate of growth per year. If growth is thought of as a form of motion, the height attained at successive ages can be considered the distance travelled, and the rate of growth, the velocity. The velocity or rate of growth reflects the child's state at any particular time better than does the height attained, which depends largely on how much the child has grown in all preceding years. The blood and tissue concentrations of those substances whose amounts change with age are thus more likely to run parallel to the velocity rather than to the distance curve. In some circumstances, indeed, it is the acceleration rather than the velocity curve that best reflects physiological (physiology) events.

      In general, the velocity of growth decreases from birth onward (and actually from as early as the fourth month of fetal life; see below), but this decrease is interrupted shortly before the end of the growth period. At this time, in boys from about 13 to 15 years, there is marked acceleration of growth, called the adolescent (adolescence) growth spurt. From birth until age four or five, the rate of growth in height declines rapidly, and then the decline, or deceleration, gets gradually less, so that in some children the velocity is practically constant from five or six up to the beginning of the adolescent spurt. A slight increase in velocity is sometimes said to occur between about six and eight years.

      This general velocity curve of growth in height begins a considerable time before birth. The peak velocity of length is reached at about four months after the mother's last menstruation. (Age in the fetal period is usually reckoned from the first day of the last menstrual period, an average of two weeks before actual fertilization, but, as a rule, the only locatable landmark.)

      Growth in weight of the fetus follows the same general pattern as growth in length, except that the peak velocity is reached much later, at approximately 34 weeks after the mother's last menstrual period.

      There is considerable evidence that from about 34 to 36 weeks onward the rate of growth of the fetus slows down because of the influence of the maternal uterus, whose available space is by then becoming fully occupied. Twins slow down earlier, when their combined weight is approximately the 36-week weight of a single fetus. Babies who are held back in this way grow rapidly as soon as they have emerged from the uterus. Thus there is a significant negative association between weight of a baby at birth and weight increment during the first year; in general, larger babies grow less, the smaller more. For the same reason there is practically no relation between adult size and the size of that person at birth, but a considerable relation has developed by the time the person is two years old. This slowing-down mechanism enables a genetically large child developing in the uterus of a small mother to be delivered successfully. It operates in many species of animals; the most dramatic demonstration was by crossing reciprocally a large Shire horse and a small Shetland pony. The pair in which the mother was a Shire had a large newborn foal, and the pair in which the mother was Shetland had a small foal. But both foals were the same size after a few months, and when fully grown both were about halfway between their parents. The same has been shown in cattle crosses.

      Poor environmental circumstances, especially of nutrition, result in lowered birth weight in the human being. This seems chiefly to be caused by a reduced rate of growth in the last two to four weeks of fetal life, for weights of babies born in 36 or 38 weeks in various parts of the world in various circumstances are said to be similar. Mothers who, because of adverse circumstances in their own childhood, have not achieved their full growth potential may produce smaller fetuses than they would have, had they grown up in better circumstances. Thus two generations or even more may be needed to undo the effect of poor environmental circumstances on birth weight.

      The great rate of growth of the fetus compared with that of the child is largely due to the fact that cells (cell) are still multiplying. The proportion of cells undergoing mitosis (the ordinary process of cell multiplication by splitting) in any tissue becomes progressively less as the fetus gets older, and it is generally thought that few if any new nerve cells (apart from the cells in the supporting tissue, or neuroglia) and only a limited proportion of new muscle (muscle system, human) cells appear after six postmenstrual months, the time when the velocity in linear dimensions is dropping sharply.

      The muscle and nerve cells of the fetus are considerably different in appearance from those of the child or adult. Both have little cytoplasm (cell substance) around the nucleus. In the muscle there is a great amount of intercellular substance and a much higher proportion of water than in mature muscle. The later fetal and the postnatal growth of the muscle consists chiefly of building up the cytoplasm of the muscle cells; salts are incorporated and the contractile proteins formed. The cells become bigger, the intercellular substance largely disappears, and the concentration of water decreases. This process continues quite actively up to about three years of age and slowly thereafter; at adolescence it briefly speeds up again, particularly in boys, under the influence of androgenic (male sex) hormones. In the nerve cells cytoplasm is added and elaborated, and extensions grow that carry impulses from and to the cells—the axons and dendrites, respectively. Thus postnatal growth, for at least some tissues, is chiefly a period of development and enlargement of existing cells, while early fetal life is a period of division and addition of new cells.

Types of growth data
      Growth is in general a regular process. Contrary to what is said in some of the older textbooks, growth in height does not proceed by fits and starts, nor does growth in upward dimensions alternate with growth in transverse ones. The more carefully measurements are taken, with precautions, for example, to minimize the decrease in height that occurs during the day for postural reasons, the more regular does the succession of points in a graph of growth become. Many attempts have been made at finding mathematical curves that fit, and thus summarize, human growth data. What is needed is a curve or curves with relatively few constants, each capable of being interpreted in a biologically meaningful way. Yet the fit to empirical data must be adequate within the limits of measuring error. The problem is difficult, partly because the measurements usually taken are themselves biologically complex. Stature, for example, consists of leg length and trunk length and head height, all of which have rather different growth curves. Even with relatively homogeneous dimensions such as the length of the radius bone in the forearm, or width of an arm muscle, it is not clear what purely biological assumptions should be made as the basis for the form of the curve. The assumption that cells are continuously dividing leads to a different formulation from the assumption that cells are adding constant amounts of nondividing material or amounts of nondividing material at rates varying from one age period to another.

      Fitting a curve to the individual values, however, is the only way of extracting the maximum information from an individual's measurement data. More than one curve is needed to fit the postnatal age range. It seems that two curves may suffice, at least for many measurements such as height and weight—one curve for the period from a few months after birth to the beginning of adolescence and a different type of curve for the adolescent spurt.

      Such curves have to be fitted to data on single individuals. Yearly averages derived from different children each measured only once do not, in general, give the same curve. Thus the distinction between the two sorts of investigation is important. When the same child at each age is used, the study is called longitudinal; when different children at each age are used, it is called cross-sectional. In a cross-sectional study all of the children at age eight, for example, are different from those at age seven. A study may be longitudinal over any number of years; there are short-term longitudinal studies extending from age four to six, for instance, and full birth-to-maturity longitudinal studies in which the children may be examined once, twice, or more times every year from birth until 20 or over. Mixed longitudinal studies are those in which children join and leave the group studied at varying intervals. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have their uses, but they do not give the same information, and the same statistical methods cannot be used for the two types of study. Cross-sectional surveys are obviously cheaper and more quickly done and can include much larger numbers of children. Periodic cross-sectional surveys are valuable in assessing the nutritional progress of a country or a socioeconomic group and the health of the child population as a whole. But they never reveal individual differences in rate of growth or in the timing of particular phases such as the adolescent growth spurt. It is these individual rate differences that throw light on the genetic control of growth and on the correlation of growth with psychological development, educational achievement, and social behaviour.

      Longitudinal studies are laborious and time-consuming; they demand great perseverance on the part of those who make them and those who take part in them; and they demand high technical standards, since in the calculation of a growth increment from one occasion to the next opportunities for two errors of measurement occur. In spite of these problems, longitudinal studies are the indispensable base on which the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of growth rest, for the clinical approach is a longitudinal one; and each child treated with human growth hormone, or with other hormones that affect growth, represents an attempt to alter an individual pattern of growth velocity.

      Averages simply computed from cross-sectional data inevitably produce velocity curves that are flatter and broader than the curve for an individual and hence not a proper basis for clinical standards. It is possible to construct curves, however, whose 50th percentile (or average) represents the actual growth of a typical individual, by taking the shape of the curve from individual longitudinal data and the absolute values for the beginning and end from large cross-sectional surveys. Graphs were plotted showing height-attained and height-velocity curves for the “typical” boy and girl in Britain in 1965, determined in this way. By “typical” is meant that boy or girl who has the mean (average) birth length, grows always at the mean velocity, has the peak of the adolescent growth spurt at the mean age, and finally reaches the mean adult height at the mean age of cessation of growth. Practically no individual follows the 50th percentile curve, but most have curves of the same shape. Standards for height for clinical use are constructed around these curves.

Boys' and girls' height curves
      The graphs mentioned above also show the height curves from birth (infancy) to maturity. Up to age two, the child was measured lying on his back. One examiner held his head in contact with a fixed board, and a second person stretched him out to his maximum length and then brought a moving board into contact with his heels. This measurement, called supine length, averages about one centimetre more than the measurement of standing height taken on the same child, hence the break in the line of the curve at age two. This occurs even when, as in the best techniques, the child is urged to stretch upwards to the full and is aided in doing so by a measurer's applying gentle upward pressure to his mastoid processes.

      The typical girl is slightly shorter than the typical boy at all ages until adolescence. She becomes taller shortly after age 11 because her adolescent spurt takes place two years earlier than the boy's. At age 14 she is surpassed again in height by the typical boy, whose adolescent spurt has now started, while hers is nearly finished. In the same way, the typical girl weighs a little less than the boy at birth, equals him at age eight, becomes heavier at age nine or 10, and remains so until about age 141/2.

      At birth the typical boy is growing slightly faster than the typical girl, but the velocities become equal at about seven months, and then the girl grows faster until four years. From then until adolescence no differences in velocity can be detected. The sex difference is best thought of, perhaps, in terms of acceleration, the boy decelerating harder than the girl over the first four years.

Different tissues (tissue) and parts of the body
      The majority of skeletal and muscular dimensions follow approximately the growth curve described for height, and so also do the dimensions of the internal organs such as the liver, the spleen, and the kidneys. But some exceptions exist, most notably the brain and skull, the reproductive organs, the lymphoid tissue of the tonsils, adenoids, and intestines, and the subcutaneous fat.

      The size attained by various tissues can be given as a percentage of the birth-to-maturity increment. Height follows the “general” curve. The reproductive organs, internal and external, have a slow prepubescent growth, followed by a large adolescent spurt; they are less sensitive than the skeleton to one set of hormones and more sensitive to another.

      The brain, together with the skull covering it and the eyes and ears, develops earlier than any other part of the body and thus has a characteristic postnatal curve. At birth it is already 25 percent of its adult weight, at age five about 90 percent, and at age 10 about 95 percent. Thus if the brain has any adolescent spurt at all, it is a small one. A small but definite spurt occurs in head length and breadth, but all or most of this is due to thickening of the skull bones and the scalp, together with development of the air sinuses.

      The dimensions of the face follow a path somewhat closer to the general curve. There is a considerable adolescent spurt, especially in the lower jaw, or mandible, resulting in the jaw's becoming longer and more projecting, the profile straighter, and the chin more pointed. As always in growth, there are considerable individual differences, to the point that a few children have no detectable spurt at all in some face measurements.

      The eye (eye, human) probably has a slight adolescent spurt, which is probably responsible for the increase in frequency of short-sightedness in children that occurs at the time of puberty. Though the degree of myopia increases continuously from at least age six to maturity, a particularly rapid rate of change occurs at about 11 to 12 in girls and 13 to 14 in boys, and this would be expected if there was a rather greater spurt in the axial dimension (the dimension from front to back) of the eye than in its vertical dimension.

      The lymphoid tissue has quite a different growth curve from the rest. It reaches its maximum amount before adolescence and then, probably under the direct influence of sex hormones, declines to its adult value.

      The subcutaneous fat (adipose cell) layer also has a curve of its own, of a slightly complicated sort. Its thickness can be measured either by X rays or, more simply, at certain sites in the body, by picking up a fold of skin and fat between the thumb and forefinger and measuring its thickness with a special, constant-pressure caliper. Subcutaneous fat begins to be laid down in the fetus at about 34 weeks postmenstrual age, increases from then until birth and from birth onward until about nine months. (This is in the average child; the peak may be reached as early as six months or as late as 12 or 15.) After nine months, when the velocity of fat gain is zero, the fat usually decreases (that is, it has a negative velocity) until age six to eight, when it begins to increase once more. Girls have a little more fat than boys at birth, and the difference becomes more marked during the period of loss, since girls lose less than boys. Graphs of the amounts of subcutaneous fat on males and females from birth to 16 years revealed that from eight years on, the curves for girls and boys diverge more radically, as do the curves for limb and body fat. At adolescence the limb fat in boys decreases, while the body fat shows a temporary slowing down of gain but no actual loss. In girls there is a slight halting of the limb-fat gain at adolescence, but no loss; the trunk fat shows only a steady rise until adolescence.

Development at puberty

Alterations in growth rate
      At puberty, a considerable alteration in growth rate occurs. There is a swift increase in body size, a change in shape and composition of the body, and a rapid development of the gonads (gonad), or sex glands—the reproductive organs and the characters signalling sexual maturity. Some of these changes are common to both sexes, but most are sex-specific. Boys have a great increase in muscle size and strength, together with a series of physiological changes making them capable of doing heavier physical work than girls and of running faster and longer. These changes all specifically adapt the male to his primitive primate role of dominating, fighting, and foraging. Such adolescent changes occur generally in primates (that is, men, apes, and monkeys) but are more marked in some species than in others. Man lies at about the middle of the primate range, as regards both adolescent size increase and degree of sexual differentiation.

Increase in body size
      During the adolescent spurt in height, for a year or more, the velocity of growth approximately doubles; a boy is likely to be growing again at the rate he last experienced about age two. The peak velocity of height (P.H.V., a point much used in growth studies) averages about 10.5 centimetres per year in boys and 9.0 centimetres in girls (about 4 and 3.4 inches, respectively), but this is the “instantaneous” peak given by a smooth curve drawn through the observations. The velocity over the whole year encompassing the six months before and after the peak is naturally somewhat less. During this year a boy usually grows between 7 and 12 centimetres (2.75 and 4.75 inches) and a girl between 6 and 11 centimetres (2.35 and 4.35 inches). Children who have their peak early reach a somewhat higher peak than those who have it late.

      The average age at which the peak is reached depends on the nature and circumstances of the group studied more, probably, than does the height of the peak. In moderately well-off British or North American children at present the peak occurs on average at about 14.0 years in boys and 12.0 years in girls. Though the absolute average ages differ from population to population, the two-year sex difference always persists.

      Practically all skeletal and muscular dimensions take part in the spurt, though not to an equal degree. Most of the spurt in height is due to acceleration of trunk length rather than of length of legs. There is a fairly regular order in which the dimensions accelerate; leg length as a rule reaches its peak first, followed by the body breadths, with shoulder width last. The earliest structures to reach their adult status are the head, hands, and feet.

      The spurt in muscle (muscle system, human), of both limbs and heart, coincides with the spurt in skeletal growth, for both are caused by the same hormones. Boys' muscle widths reach a peak velocity of growth that is greater than that reached by girls. But, since girls have their spurt earlier, there is actually a period, from about 121/2 to 131/2, when girls on average have larger muscles than boys of the same age, as well as being taller. Simultaneously with the spurt there is a loss of fat, as described above.

      The marked increase in muscle size in boys at adolescence leads to an increase in strength. Before adolescence, boys and girls are similar in strength for a given body size and shape; after, boys have much greater strength, probably due to development of more force per gram of muscle as well as to absolutely larger muscles. They also develop larger hearts and lungs relative to their size, a higher systolic blood pressure (the pressure resulting from a heart contraction), a lower resting heart rate, a greater capacity for carrying oxygen in the blood with more hemoglobin, and a greater power for neutralizing the chemical products of muscular exercise such as lactic acid. In short, the male becomes at adolescence more adapted for the tasks of hunting, fighting, and manipulating all sorts of heavy objects, as is necessary in some forms of food gathering.

      It is as a direct result of these anatomical and physiological changes that athletic ability increases so much in boys at adolescence. The popular notion of a boy's “outgrowing his strength” at this time has little scientific support. It is true that the peak velocity of strength is reached a year or so later than that of height, so that a short period may exist when the adolescent, having completed his skeletal and probably also his muscular growth, still does not have the strength of a young adult of the same body size and shape. But this is a temporary phase; considered absolutely, power, athletic skill, and physical endurance all increase progressively and rapidly throughout adolescence.

Development of the reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics
      The adolescent spurt in skeletal and muscular dimensions is closely related to the rapid development of the reproductive system that takes place at this time. The acceleration of penis growth begins on average at about age 121/2 years, but sometimes as early as 101/2 and sometimes as late as 141/2. The completion of penis development usually occurs at about age 141/2, but in some boys is at 121/2 and in others at 161/2. There are a few boys, it will be noticed, who do not begin their spurts in height or penis development until the earliest maturers have entirely completed theirs. At ages 13, 14, and 15 there is an enormous variability among any group of boys, who range all the way from practically complete maturity to absolute preadolescence. The same is true of girls aged 11, 12, and 13.

      The psychological and social importance of this difference in the tempo of development, as it has been called, is great, particularly in boys. Boys who are advanced in development are likely to dominate their contemporaries in athletic achievement and sexual interest alike. Conversely the late developer is the one who all too often loses out in the rough and tumble of the adolescent world, and he may begin to wonder whether he will ever develop his body properly or be as well endowed sexually as those others whom he has seen developing around him. An important part of the educationist's and the doctor's task at this time is to provide information about growth and its variability to preadolescents and adolescents and to give sympathetic support and reassurance to those who need it.

      The sequence of events, though not exactly the same for each boy or girl, is much less variable than the age at which the events occur. The first sign of puberty in the boy is usually an acceleration of the growth of the testes (testis) and scrotum with reddening and wrinkling of the scrotal skin. Slight growth of pubic hair may begin about the same time but is usually a trifle later. The spurts in height and penis growth begin on average about a year after the first testicular acceleration. Concomitantly with the growth of the penis, and under the same stimulus, the seminal vesicles, the prostate, and the bulbo-urethral glands, all of which contribute their secretions to the seminal fluid, enlarge and develop. The time of the first ejaculation of seminal fluid is to some extent culturally as well as biologically determined but as a rule is during adolescence and about a year after the beginning of accelerated penis growth.

      Axillary (armpit) hair appears on average some two years after the beginning of pubic hair growth; that is, when pubic hair is reaching stage 4. There is enough variability and dissociation in these events, so that a very few children's axillary hair actually appears first. In boys, facial hair begins to grow at about the time that the axillary hair appears. There is a definite order in which the hairs of moustache and beard appear: first at the corners of the upper lip, then over all the upper lip, then at the upper part of the cheeks, in the midline below the lower lip, and, finally, along the sides and lower borders of the chin. The remainder of the body hair appears from about the time of first axillary hair development until a considerable time after puberty. The ultimate amount of body hair that an individual develops seems to depend largely on heredity, though whether because of the kinds and amounts of hormones secreted or because of variations in the reactivity of the end organs is not known.

      Breaking of the voice occurs relatively late in adolescence. The change in pitch accompanies enlargement of the larynx and lengthening of the vocal cords, caused by the action of the male hormone testosterone on the laryngeal cartilages. There is also a change in quality that distinguishes the voice (more particularly the vowel sounds) of both male and female adults from that of children. This is caused by the enlargement of the resonating spaces above the larynx, as a result of the rapid growth of the mouth, nose, and maxilla (upper jaw).

      In the skin, particularly of the armpits and the genital and anal regions, the sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands develop rapidly during puberty and give rise to a characteristic odour; the changes occur in both sexes but are more marked in the male. Enlargement of the pores at the root of the nose and the appearance of comedones (blackheads) and acne, while likely to occur in either sex, are considerably more common in adolescent boys than girls, since the underlying skin changes are the result of androgenic (male sex hormone) activity.

      During adolescence the male breast undergoes changes, some temporary and some permanent. The diameter of the areola, which is equal in both sexes before puberty, increases considerably, though less than it does in girls. In some boys (between a fifth and a third of most groups studied) there is a distinct enlargement of the breast (mammary gland) (sometimes unilaterally) about midway through adolescence. This usually regresses again after about one year.

      In girls the start of breast enlargement—the appearance of the “breast bud”—is as a rule the first sign of puberty, though the appearance of pubic hair precedes it in about one-third. The uterus and vagina develop simultaneously with the breast. The labia and clitoris also enlarge. Menarche, the first menstrual period, is a late event in the sequence. Though it marks a definitive and probably mature stage of uterine development, it does not usually signify the attainment of full reproductive function. The early cycles may be more irregular than later ones and in some girls, but by no means all, are accompanied by discomfort. They are often anovulatory; that is, without the shedding of an egg. Thus there is frequently a period of adolescent sterility lasting a year to 18 months after menarche, but it cannot be relied on in the individual case. Similar considerations may apply to the male, but there is no reliable information about this. On average, girls grow about six centimetres (about 2.4 inches) more after menarche, though gains of up to twice this amount may occur. The gain is practically independent of whether menarche occurs early or late.

Normal variations
      Children vary a great deal both in the rapidity with which they pass through the various stages of puberty and in the closeness with which the various events are linked together. At one extreme one may find a perfectly healthy girl who has not yet menstruated though her breasts and pubic hair are characteristic of the adult and she is already two years past her peak height velocity; and at the other, a girl who has passed all the stages of puberty within the space of two years.

      In girls the interval from the first indication of puberty to complete maturity varies from 18 months to six years. The period from the moment when the breast bud first appears to menarche averages 21/2 years, but it may be as little as six months or as much as 51/2 years. The rapidity with which a child passes through puberty seems to be independent of whether puberty is occurring early or late. Menarche invariably occurs after peak height velocity has been passed.

      In boys a similar variability of maturation occurs. The male genitalia may take between two and five years to attain full development, and some boys complete the whole process before others have moved from the first to the second stage.

      The height spurt occurs relatively later in boys than in girls. Thus there is a difference between the average boy and girl of two years in age of peak height velocity but of only one year in the first appearance of pubic hair. Indeed, in some girls the acceleration in height is the first sign of puberty; this is never so in boys. A small boy whose genitalia are just beginning to develop can be unequivocally reassured that an acceleration in height is soon to take place, but a girl in the corresponding situation may already have had her height spurt.

Sex dimorphism
      The differential effects on the growth of bone, muscle, and fat at puberty increase considerably the difference in body composition between the sexes. Boys have a greater increase not only in stature but especially in breadth of shoulders; girls have a greater relative increase in width of hips. These differences are produced chiefly by the changes that occur during puberty, but other sex differentiations arise before that time. Some, like the external genital difference itself, develop during fetal life. Others develop continuously throughout the whole growth period by a sustained differential growth rate. An example of this is the greater relative length and breadth of the forearm in the male when compared with whole arm length or whole body length.

      Part of the sex difference in pelvic shape antedates puberty. Girls at birth already have a wider pelvic outlet. Thus the adaptation for childbearing is present from an early age. The changes at puberty are concerned more with widening the pelvic inlet and broadening the much more noticeable hips.

Physical and behavioral interaction
      Children vary greatly in their tempo of growth. The effects are most dramatically seen at adolescence, but they are present at all ages from birth and even before.

      The concept of developmental age, as opposed to chronological age, is an important one. To measure developmental age, there is need of some way of determining how far along his own path to maturity a given child has gone. Therefore, there is need of a measure in which everyone at maturity ends up the same (not different as in height). The usual measure used is skeletal maturity or bone (skeletal system, human) age. This is measured by taking an X ray of the hand and wrist. The appearances of the developing bones can be rated and formed into a scale of development; the scale is applicable to boys and girls of all genetic backgrounds, though girls on average reach any given score at a younger age than do boys; and blacks on average, at least in the first few years after birth, reach a given score younger than do whites. Other areas of the body may be used if required. Skeletal maturity is closely related to the age at which adolescence occurs; that is, to maturity measured by some sex character developments. Thus the range of the chronological age within which menarche may normally fall is about 10 to 161/2, but the corresponding range of bone age for menarche is only 12 to 141/2. Evidently the physiological processes controlling progression of skeletal development are in most instances closely linked with those that initiate the events of adolescence. Furthermore, children tend to be consistently advanced or retarded during their whole growth period, at any rate after about age three.

      There is little doubt that being an early or a late maturer may have repercussions on behaviour and that in some children these repercussions may be considerable. There is little enough solid information on the relation between emotional and physiological development, but what there is supports the common-sense notion that emotional attitudes are clearly related to physiological events.

Larger size and earlier maturation
      The rate of maturing and the age of onset of puberty are dependent on a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Where the environment is good, most of the variability in age at menarche in a population is due to genetical differences. In many societies puberty occurs later in the poorly off, and, in most societies investigated, children with many siblings grow more slowly than children with few.

      During the last hundred years there has been a striking tendency for children to become progressively larger at all ages. This is known as the “secular trend.” The magnitude of the trend in Europe and America is such that it dwarfs the differences between socioeconomic classes.

      The data from Europe and America agree well: from about 1900, or a little earlier, to the present, children in average economic circumstances have increased in height at age five to seven by about one to two centimetres (0.4 to 0.8 inch) per decade, and at 10 to 14 by two to three centimetres (0.8 to 1.2 inches) each decade. Preschool data show that the trend starts directly after birth and may, indeed, be relatively greater from age two to five than subsequently. The trend started, at least in Britain, as early as 1850.

      Most of the trend toward greater size in children reflects a more rapid maturation; only a minor part reflects a greater ultimate size. The trend toward earlier maturing is best shown in the statistics on age at menarche. The trend is between three and four months per decade since 1850 in average sections of western European populations. Well-off (social status) persons show a trend of about half of this magnitude, having never been so retarded in menarche as the worse off. The causes of the secular trend are probably multiple. Certainly better nutrition is a major one and perhaps in particular more protein and calories in early infancy. A lessening of disease may also have contributed. Hot climates used to be cited as a potent cause of early menarche, but it seems that their effect, if any, is considerably less than that of nutrition. Some authors have supposed that the increased psychosexual stimulation consequent on modern urban living has contributed, but there is no positive evidence for this.

Hormones (hormone) and growth
      The main hormones concerned with growth are pituitary growth hormone, thyroid hormone, the sex hormones testosterone and estrogen, and the pituitary gonadotropic (sex-gland-stimulating) hormones.

      Pituitary growth hormone, a protein with molecular weight of 21,600 and of known amino-acid composition, is secreted by the pituitary gland throughout life. Exactly what its function is in the adult is not clear, but in the child it is necessary for growth; without it dwarfism results. During fetal life it seems not to be necessary, though normally present. It is not secreted at a constant rate all day but in small bursts of activity. Secretion by the pituitary is controlled by a substance sent to it from an adjacent part of the brain. The normal stimulus for secretion is not certain, but a sharp and “unnatural” lowering of blood sugar will cause growth hormone to be secreted, and this is used as a test. The hormone decreases the amount of fat and causes protein to be laid down in muscles and viscera. Children who lack it are fat as well as small; when given it by injection, they lose fat and grow rapidly.

      The hormone is peculiar in being species-specific; that is, only growth hormone from human glands is active in man. Supplies of the hormone for treating children who need it are obtained at autopsy, and supply has been limited by this. Recombinant DNA technology shows possibilities in increased manufacture of this hormone in the laboratory.

      Thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland in the neck is necessary for normal growth, though it does not itself stimulate growth, for example, in the absence of pituitary growth hormone. Without thyroid hormone, however, cells do not develop and function properly, especially in the brain. Babies who lack thyroid hormone at birth are small and have insufficiently developed brains; they are known as cretins. Frequently, if the condition is diagnosed and they are treated with thyroid hormone at once, they recover completely; the longer they go without treatment, the more likely it is that the brain damage will be permanent.

      Thyroid lack may also develop later in childhood, when it causes a slowing of growth rate; full catch-up follows prompt treatment.

       testosterone, secreted (sex hormone) by the interstitial cells of the testis, is important not only at puberty but before. Its secretion by the fetal testis cells is responsible for the development of certain parts of the male genital apparatus. If testosterone is not secreted at a particular and circumscribed time, the genitalia develop into the female form.

      Only small amounts of testosterone circulate between birth and puberty, but at puberty the interstitial cells develop greatly in response to pituitary luteinizing hormone (see below), and testosterone is secreted in large amounts, bringing about most of the changes of male puberty. It acts on a widespread series of receptors—for example, the cells of the penis, the muscles, the skin of the face, the cartilages of the shoulder, and certain parts of the brain. Most of the adolescent growth spurt is due to testosterone.

      The female sex hormones, collectively called estrogens (estrogen), are first secreted in quantity at puberty by cells in the ovary. They cause growth of the uterus, vagina, and breast (mammary gland); they act also on the bones of the hip, causing the specifically female widening. The adolescent (adolescence) growth spurt in the female is probably caused by testosterone-like substances (androgens) secreted by the adrenal gland in both male and female.

      The pituitary secretes two other hormones concerned in development: one, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), causes growth of the main portions of the ovary in the female and the sperm-producing cells in the testis of the male; the other, luteinizing hormone (LH), causes growth and secretion of the testosterone-secreting cells of the male and has an action in controlling the menstrual cycle in the female. The pituitary is caused to secrete gonadotropins by substances called releasing factors that come to it from adjacent areas of the brain, where they are made. Certain children develop all the changes of puberty, up to and including sperm production or ovulation, at an early age, either as the result of a brain lesion or as an isolated developmental, sometimes genetic, defect. The youngest mother on record was such a child; she gave birth to a full-term healthy infant by cesarean section at the age of five years and eight months. The existence of precocious puberty and the results of accidental ingestion by small children of male or female sex hormones indicate that breasts, uterus, and penis will respond to hormonal stimulation long before puberty. Evidently an increased end-organ sensitivity plays at most a minor part in puberal events.

      The signal to start the sequence of events is given by the brain, not the pituitary. Just as the brain holds the information on sex, so it holds information on maturity. The pituitary gland of a newborn rat successfully grafted in place of an adult pituitary begins at once to function in an adult fashion and does not have to wait until its normal age of maturation has been reached. It is the hypothalamus in the brain, not the pituitary, that must mature before puberty begins. Small amounts of sex hormones circulate from the time of birth, and these appear to inhibit the prepuberal hypothalamus from producing gonadotropin releasers. At puberty the hypothalamic cells become less sensitive to sex hormones. The small amount of sex hormones circulating then fails to inhibit the hypothalamus; gonadotropins are released, and these stimulate the production of testosterone by the testis or estrogen by the ovary. The level of the sex hormone rises until the same feedback circuit is re-established but now at a higher level of gonadotropins and sex hormones. The sex hormones are now high enough to stimulate the growth of secondary sex characters (physiology) and to support mating behaviour.

      Numerous factors may retard maturation or prevent normal growth, including hormonal disorders, metabolic defects, hereditary conditions, and inadequate nutrition.

James M. Tanner Ed.

Additional Reading
Overviews of the topic are provided by Manuel Hernández (M. Hernández Rodríguez) and Jesús Argente (eds.), Human Growth: Basic and Clinical Aspects (1992), conference proceedings; Frank Falkner and J.M. Tanner (eds.), Human Growth, 3 vol. (1978–79), with vol. 1 and 3 in a 2nd ed. (1986); Barry Bogin, Patterns of Human Growth (1988), a sophisticated discourse for advanced students and researchers in bioanthropology on the evolution, population variations, and mathematical and biological models of human growth patterns; and Esmail Meisami and Paola S. Timiras (eds.), Handbook of Human Growth and Developmental Biology, 3 vol. in 7 (1988–90).On human anatomy in particular, Elaine N. Marieb, Human Anatomy and Physiology, 3rd ed. (1995); and Alexander P. Spence, Basic Human Anatomy, 3rd ed. (1990), are widely used introductory texts for undergraduate students. Various aspects of human anatomy are covered in Keith L. Moore and Anne M.R. Agur, Essential Clinical Anatomy (1995); Frank J. Slaby, Susan K. McCune, and Robert W. Summers, Gross Anatomy in the Practice of Medicine (1994); Anne M.R. Agur and Ming J. Lee, Grant's Atlas of Anatomy, 9th ed. (1991); Ronald G. Wolff, Functional Chordate Anatomy (1991), a textbook that integrates body functions across systems, including basic concepts of embryonic development, phylogeny, and some of the anatomic correlates of behaviour; Kurt E. Johnson, Human Developmental Anatomy (1989); Kenneth M. Backhouse and Ralph T. Hutchings, A Color Atlas of Surface Anatomy: Clinical and Applied (1986); Henry Clay, Anatomy of the Human Body, 30th American ed. edited by Carmine D. Clemente (1985); James E. Crouch, Functional Human Anatomy, 4th ed. (1985); W. Henry Holinshead, Textbook of Anatomy, 4th ed. (1985); and Robert L. Bacon and Nelson R. Niles, Medical Histology: A Text-Atlas with Introductory Pathology (1983).Gilbert B. Forbes, Human Body Composition: Growth, Aging, Nutrition, and Activity (1987), is a good source of introductory information for general readers interested in the effects of growth and aging on human body composition. Han C.G. Kemper (ed.), Growth, Health, and Fitness of Teenagers: Longitudinal Research in International Perspective (1985), reports on a study of age-related changes in the physical growth and physical activity and performance of teenagers in The Netherlands. Robert M. Malina and Claude Bouchard, Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity (1991), is a well-organized textbook for students interested in human growth and its relation to body composition and physical performance. R.J. Shephard and J. Pařízková (eds.), Human Growth, Physical Fitness, and Nutrition (1991), contains a nicely presented, invaluable collection of research papers for health scientists and clinicians concerned with nutrition and physical fitness in children during their growing years. David Sinclair, Human Growth After Birth, 5th ed. (1989), provides a clear, basic textbook for nursing and other health profession students and general readers.

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Universalium. 2010.

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