Madurai [mä də rī′]
city in S India, in the state of Tamil Nadu: pop. 941,000

* * *

Ma·du·rai (mä'də-rīʹ, mădʹyo͝o-rī')
A city of southern India south-southwest of Chennai (Madras). It is a Hindu pilgrimage site and an educational and cultural center with varied industries. Population: 940,989.

* * *

formerly (until 1949)  Madura 

      city, south-central Tamil Nadu (Tamil Nādu) state, southeastern India, bounded on the west by Kerala state. It is the second largest, and probably the oldest, city in the state. Located on the Vaigai River and enclosed by the Anai, Naga, and Pasu (Elephant, Snake, and Cow) hills, the compact old city was the site of the Pandya (Pāṇḍya Dynasty) (4th–11th century CE) capital and is centred on Minaksi-Sundareshvara Temple. The temple, Tirumala Nayak palace, Teppakulam tank (an earthen embankment reservoir), and a 1,000-pillared hall were rebuilt in the Vijayanagar period (16th–17th century) after the total destruction of the city in 1310. The city walls were removed by the British in 1837 to enable the city to expand, and administrative and residential quarters formed north of the river.

      Large-scale industry has developed in the suburbs. Predominant are cotton spinning and weaving and the manufacture of transport equipment, tobacco, and sugar. Small-scale hand-loom weaving of silks and cottons, which have made Madurai famous throughout history, remains important. In the early years CE, Madurai was also well known for its Tamil shangam (literary society), and a new shangam was established in 1901. The city is the seat of Madurai-Kamaraj University (1966).

      Lying southeast of the Eastern Ghats, the surrounding region occupies part of the plain of South India and contains several mountain spurs, including the Palni (Palni Hills) and Sirumalai hills (north), the Cardamom Hills (west), and the Varushanad and Andipatti hills (south). Between these hills in the west lies the high Kambam Valley. Eastward, the plains drop to 300 feet (90 metres) above sea level but contain isolated hills. The chief river, the Vaigai (Vaigai River), flows northeast through the Kambam Valley and east across the centre of the state.

      The ancient history of the region is associated with the Pandya kings. Later it was conquered by Chola, Vijayanagar, Muslim, Maratha, and British rulers. In the 1940s it became known as the centre of the civil disobedience movement and remained an important seat of political leadership.

      The region has never been self-sufficient in rice, despite the completion of the Periyar (1895) and Vaigai (1960) irrigation works. Its chief cash crops are peanuts (groundnuts), cotton, sugarcane, coffee, cardamom, potatoes, and pears. Pop. (2001) city, 928,869.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужна курсовая?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Madurai — மதுரை …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Madurai — hindi: मदुरै tamil: மதுரை Bandera …   Wikipedia Español

  • Madurai — Ajouter une image Administration Pays  Inde État et territoire Tamil Nadu District …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Madurai —   [mædʊ raɪ], bis 1949 Madura [mæ duːrɑ], Stadt im Bundesstaat Tamil Nadu, Südindien, im Tal des Vaigai, 941 000 Einwohner; katholischer Erzbischofssitz, anglikanischer Bischofssitz; Universität (gegründet 1966), eines der ältesten Kulturzentren… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Madurai — (anc. Madura) v. de l Inde (état de Tamil Nadu); 952 000 hab. Anc. ville sacrée de l Inde. Temple brahmanique dravidien (XVIIe s.) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Madurai — [mä də rī′] city in S India, in the state of Tamil Nadu: pop. 941,000 …   English World dictionary

  • Madurai — This article is about the municipality in Tamil Nadu, India. For its namesake district, see Madurai district. Madurai மதுரை Athens of the East   city   …   Wikipedia

  • Madurai — Original name in latin Madurai Name in other language IXM, Madura, Madurai, Maduraj, Mathurai, m thu ri, ma du lai, madhura, madhurai, madoMaduraiurai, madulai, madura, madura i, madurai, maduraya, madwray, maturai, Мадура, Мадурай, State code IN …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Madurai — Admin ASC 2 Code Orig. name Madurai Country and Admin Code IN.25.1264522 IN …   World countries Adminstrative division ASC I-II

  • Madurai Nayak Dynasty — Madurai Nayak Kingdom Approximate extent of the Madurai Nayakar Kingdom, circa 1570 CE. Official language Telugu, Tamil Capitals Madurai 1529 – 1616, Tiruchirapalli1616–1634, again Madurai 1634 – 1695, Tiruchirapalli1695 1716,Madurai 1716–1736 …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”