- Hawks, Howard
▪ American directorborn May 30, 1896, Goshen, Ind., U.S.died Dec. 26, 1977, Palm Springs, Calif.U.S. motion-picture director who maintained a consistent personal style within the framework of the traditional film genres. His pictures, which starred Hollywood's most noted actors, were marked by the effective establishment and sustenance of mood and by an intimacy created by filming from the eye level of a spectator.Hawks was a professional race-car driver before going to Hollywood in 1922 as a director. A Girl in Every Port (1928), his first important picture, was followed by internationally popular features that included the adventure films The Dawn Patrol (1930), Only Angels Have Wings (1939), and Hatari! (1962); the crime films Scarface (1932), To Have and Have Not (1944), and The Big Sleep (1946); and the westerns Red River (1948), Rio Bravo (1959), and El Dorado (1967).Hawks's heroes in his adventure, crime, and western films are essentially professionals, men who quietly accept the often dangerous responsibilities of their careers. In comedies such as Twentieth Century (1934), Bringing Up Baby (1938), and His Girl Friday (1940) the treatment of the hero is reversed; his self-respect is diminished, often by a woman.
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