Hawking, Stephen W.

Hawking, Stephen W.

▪ British physicist
in full  Stephen William Hawking  
born Jan. 8, 1942, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng.
 English theoretical physicist whose theory of exploding black holes (black hole) drew upon both relativity theory and quantum mechanics. He also worked with space-time singularities.

      Hawking studied mathematics and physics at University College, Oxford (B.A., 1962), and Trinity Hall, Cambridge (Ph.D., 1966). He was elected a research fellow at Gonville and Caius College at Cambridge. In the early 1960s Hawking contracted amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, an incurable degenerative neuromuscular disease. He continued to work despite the disease's progressively disabling effects.

  Hawking worked primarily in the field of general relativity and particularly on the physics of black holes. In 1971 he suggested the formation, following the big bang, of numerous objects containing as much as 1,000,000,000 tons of mass but occupying only the space of a proton. These objects, called mini black holes, are unique in that their immense mass and gravity require that they be ruled by the laws of relativity, while their minute size requires that the laws of quantum mechanics apply to them also. In 1974 Hawking proposed that, in accordance with the predictions of quantum theory, black holes emit subatomic particles until they exhaust their energy and finally explode. Hawking's work greatly spurred efforts to theoretically delineate the properties of black holes, objects about which it was previously thought that nothing could be known. His work was also important because it showed these properties' relationship to the laws of classical thermodynamics and quantum mechanics.

 Hawking's contributions to physics earned him many exceptional honours. In 1974 the Royal Society elected him one of its youngest fellows. He became professor of gravitational physics at Cambridge in 1977, and in 1979 he was appointed to Cambridge's Lucasian professorship of mathematics, a post once held by Isaac Newton. Hawking was made a Commander of the British Empire (CBE) in 1982 and a Companion of Honour in 1989. He received the Copley Medal from the Royal Society in 2006.

      His publications include The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time (1973; coauthored with G.F.R. Ellis), Superspace and Supergravity (1981), The Very Early Universe (1983), and the best sellers A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes (1988), The Universe in a Nutshell (2001), and A Briefer History of Time (2005).

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hawking, Stephen —    b. 1942, Oxford    Physicist    Stephen Hawking’s best selling book on quantum physics, relativity, time and space was written from his wheelchair, to which he is confined by motor neurone disease. The book, A Brief History of Time, makes… …   Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture

  • Hawking , Stephen William — (1942–) British theoretical physicist and cosmologist Hawking, who was born in Oxford, graduated from the university there and obtained his PhD from Cambridge University. After holding various Cambridge posts, he became professor of gravitational …   Scientists

  • Hawking, Stephen W(illiam) — born Jan. 8, 1942, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Eng. English theoretical physicist. He studied at the University of Oxford and later received his Ph.D. from Cambridge. He has worked primarily in the field of general relativity and particularly on the… …   Universalium

  • Hawking, Stephen W(illiam) — (n. 8 ene. 1942, Oxford, Oxfordshire, Inglaterra). Físico teórico inglés. Estudió en la Universidad de Oxford y más tarde recibió su doctorado de la Universidad de Cambridge. Ha trabajado sobre todo en el tema de la relatividad general y en… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Hawking,Stephen William — Haw·king (hôʹkĭng), Stephen William. Born 1942. British theoretical physicist noted for his research into the origin of the universe. His work influenced the development of the big bang and black hole theories. * * * …   Universalium

  • Hawking, Stephen — ► (n. 1942) Físico británico. Es autor de trabajos teóricos sobre el universo y los agujeros negros en particular: Historia del tiempo: del big bang a los agujeros negros (1988). Fue premio Príncipe de Asturias de la Concordia en 1989 …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Hawking — Hawking, Stephen …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Stephen Hawking — Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE (* 8. Januar 1942 in Oxford, Vereinigtes Königreich) ist ein englischer theoretischer Physiker und Astrophysiker. Von 1979 bis 2009[1] war er Inhaber des …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Stephen Hawking — Stephen William Hawking Stephen William Hawking. Nacimiento 8 de enero de 1942 (69 años) Oxford, Reino Unido …   Wikipedia Español

  • Stephen Hawkins — Stephen Hawking Stephen Hawking Image de Stephen Hawking réalisée par la NASA en 1999 Naissance 8 janvier 1942 …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”