- Hawatmeh, Naʿīf
▪ Palestinian politicianalso spelled Nayif Ḥawatimaborn 1935, Al-Salṭ, JordanPalestinian politician who founded the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) and was its secretary-general from 1969.Born into a Christian family in Jordan, Hawatmeh attended the Arab University of Beirut in Lebanon, where he became a militant in the Arab Nationalist Movement, which at its 1967 congress adopted Hawatmeh's Marxist “scientific socialism” as its platform. Hawatmeh joined the Marxist-Leninist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) in 1969 but later that year split with the PFLP to form the Popular Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine; the name was shortened to Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine in 1974.Politically Hawatmeh's position eventually came close to that of Yāsir ʿArafāt (Arafāt, Yāsirʿ)'s, the leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). He favoured the creation of a Palestinian state in the Israeli-occupied West Bank, although he criticized ʿArafāt's conciliatory position toward Jordan's King Ḥussein, whose 1970 repression of Palestinian commandos resulted in many DFLP casualties. Hawatmeh also favoured armed attacks, but he opposed violence, such as hijackings, against targets outside Israel; he was also the first Palestinian guerrilla leader to make contact with Israeli Marxists. He led a DFLP delegation to Moscow and was highly regarded by the Soviets as a solid Marxist, without the middle-class orientation of ʿArafāt's Fatah movement. Hawatmeh opposed the peace process with Israel in the early 1990s, and after the signing of the Oslo Accords in 1993 his party joined with other rejectionist groups to form the Alliance of Palestinian Forces (APF) in Damascus; the DFLP left the alliance in 1996.
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