Hashimoto disease

Hashimoto disease

also called  Hashimoto thyroiditis,  chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis,  chronic autoimmune thyroiditis , or  struma lymphomatosa 

      a noninfectious form of inflammation of the thyroid gland ( thyroiditis).

      Hashimoto disease is an autoimmune (autoimmunity) disorder (i.e., the body reacts to its own tissues as though they were foreign substances). Its onset is insidious, with gradual enlargement of the thyroid gland (a condition called goitre) and a gradual decrease in thyroid hormone production. The usual findings are symmetrical rubbery enlargement of the thyroid gland, symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism, or both. The natural course of the disease often includes gradually increasing thyroid enlargement, as well as increasing thyroid deficiency. However, spontaneous improvement in hypothyroidism or goitre can occur. Pathologic examination of the thyroid reveals infiltration by white blood cells called lymphocytes (lymphocyte) and excess growth (hyperplasia) of thyroid tissue. The majority of patients are women, who are five to eight times more likely to develop this condition than men; it occurs more frequently in older women. There is a genetic predisposition to the disease, and a high iodine intake may contribute to its onset.

      Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis have antibodies (antibody) against several components of thyroid tissue in their serum. Among them are antibodies against the enzyme thyroid peroxidase and the unique thyroid protein thyroglobulin. These antibodies are often measured as a diagnostic test for the disease, but they do not alter thyroid function or damage the thyroid. Some patients with the disease produce antibodies that block the action of thyrotropin (thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH), the anterior pituitary (pituitary gland) hormone that maintains normal thyroid function. In most patients the thyroid is gradually destroyed, either by antibodies that damage the thyroid cells (cytotoxic antibodies) or, more likely, by lymphocytes that have been sensitized to migrate to the thyroid, where they interact with thyroid cells and produce substances ( cytokines) that damage thyroid cells. The factors that initiate this process or the particular substances that cause the thyroid damage are not known.

      There is no treatment for Hashimoto disease itself. Hypothyroidism is treated (therapeutics) with thyroid hormone, usually thyroxine, which may also reduce the size of a goitre, if present.

Robert D. Utiger

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать реферат

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Hashimoto disease — a progressive type of autoimmune thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration of the gland and circulating antithyroid antibodies; patients have goiter and gradually develop hypothyroidism. It has a familial predisposition, usually affects women,… …   Medical dictionary

  • Hashimoto disease (thyroiditis struma) encephalopathy — Ha·shi·mo·to disease (thyroiditis, struma), encephalopathy (hah″she moґto) [Hakaru Hashimoto, Japanese surgeon, 1881–1934] see under disease and encephalopathy …   Medical dictionary

  • Hashimoto encephalopathy — a type of encephalopathy that occasionally accompanies Hashimoto disease, characterized by altered consciousness, confusion, and sometimes myoclonic seizures …   Medical dictionary

  • Hashimoto's encephalopathy — is a very rare condition associated with Hashimoto s Thyroiditis. Hashimoto s Encephalopathy is a neuroendocrine disorder. Much like the antibodies in Hashimoto s Thyroiditis attack the thyroid, in Hashimoto s Encephalopathy, antibodies attack… …   Wikipedia

  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis — Infobox Disease Name = Hashimoto s thyroiditis Caption = Histology DiseasesDB = 5649 ICD10 = ICD10|E|06|3|e|00 ICD9 = ICD9|245.2 ICDO = OMIM = 140300 MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = med eMedicineTopic = 949 MeshID = D050031 Hashimoto s thyroiditis… …   Wikipedia

  • Hashimoto Hakaru — was a Japanese medical scientist of the Meiji period and Taishō period. He was born May 5, 1881, in the village of Midau, Nishi tsuge in the Mie Prefecture. He graduated from Kyushu University medical school in 1907. He then entered igaku bu… …   Wikipedia

  • Hashimoto-Thyreoiditis — Klassifikation nach ICD 10 E06.3 Hashimoto Thyreoiditis Hashitoxikose (transitorisch) Lymphozytäre Thyreoiditis Struma lymphomatosa (Hashimoto) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Hashimoto Hakaru — 橋本策     Hakaru Hashimoto Hakaru Hashimoto (jap. 橋本 策, Hashimoto Hakaru; * 1881 in Midai (heute: Iga) in der Präfektur Mie; † 1934) war ein japanischer Pathologe und Chirurg. Er entdeckte die Autoimmunthyreoiditis. Hashimoto entstammte einer… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Disease — Illness or sickness often characterized by typical patient problems (symptoms) and physical findings (signs). Disruption sequence: The events that occur when a fetus that is developing normally is subjected to a destructive agent such as the… …   Medical dictionary

  • Hashimoto's thyroiditis — Ha·shi·mo·to s thyroiditis also Hashimoto thyroiditis .hä shē mō (.)tō(z) n a chronic autoimmune thyroiditis that is characterized by thyroid enlargement, thyroid fibrosis, lymphatic infiltration of thyroid tissue, and the production of… …   Medical dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”