- Hans Adam II, prince of Liechtenstein
▪ prince of LiechtensteinGerman Hans Adam, Fürst von Liechtenstein , in full Johannes Adam Pius Ferdinand Alois Josef Maria Marko d'Aviano von und zu Liechtensteinborn February 14, 1945, Zürich, Switzerlandmember of the ruling family of Liechtenstein who became prince (head of state) in 1989.Hans Adam, the eldest son of Prince Francis Joseph II (Francis Joseph II, prince of Liechtenstein), spent his early youth in the castle of Vaduz with his brothers and his sister but he and his siblings were not isolated from the everyday life of the principality's citizens. He attended primary school in the town, and, as a Boy Scout, he took part in camping and other activities. He received his secondary education at the Schottengymnasium (“Scottish Academy”) in Vienna and in Zuoz, Switzerland. After a brief period as a trainee in a London bank, in the fall of 1965 he entered the University of St. Gallen, Switzerland, from which he graduated in 1969.As crown prince, Hans Adam took a keen interest in the principality's economic and financial development and in its relations with other nations. He was head of the Prince of Liechtenstein Foundation from 1970 to 1984. In 1972 his father entrusted him with the management of the princely estate, a task he performed with success. In a ceremony in Vaduz on August 26, 1984, his father handed over the greater part of his executive authority to Hans Adam. The transfer of the duties had been announced the previous July by the monarch, whose reign had begun on July 25, 1938; he had ruled longer than any other living monarch except Emperor Hirohito of Japan. After the death of his father in 1989, Hans Adam became Prince Hans Adam II.Although Hans Adam had earlier expressed his firm belief in European unity, he announced in 1991 that Liechtenstein, which had maintained a long tradition of political and economic independence, would not seek membership in the European Union, though it did join the United Nations (1990), the European Free Trade Association (1991), the European Economic Area (1995), and the World Trade Organization (1995). Under Hans Adam, Liechtenstein enjoyed a continuation of the prosperity fostered by Francis Joseph.The prince's relations with Liechtenstein's Landtag (parliament) were often tense. Hans Adam regularly threatened to move to Austria if he was not given wider powers, which eventually were approved in a referendum in 2003. In 2004 he turned over day-to-day governing power to his oldest son, Crown Prince Alois.
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