- Hales, Stephen
▪ English scientistborn Sept. 7/17, 1677, Bekesbourne, Kent, Eng.died Jan. 4, 1761, Teddington, near LondonEnglish botanist (botany), physiologist, and clergyman who pioneered quantitative experimentation in plant and animal physiology.While a divinity student at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, he studied science, particularly botany and chemistry. Ordained in 1703, he was appointed in 1709 to the parish of Teddington, where he remained until his death.Hales introduced new techniques of measurement to the study of plant physiology. One of the best-known of these concerned the measurement of water vapour emitted by plants. He measured this emission, known as transpiration, finding that it was the leaves that transpired and that this process encouraged a continuous upward flow of water and dissolved nutrients from the roots. He determined the direction in which sap flows in plants (it flows upward), and he measured the sap's pressure. He also measured the rates of growth of shoots and leaves and the pressure roots exert on sap, and he investigated plant respiration.Hales devised several apparatuses which he used to collect the gases that were produced by various chemical reactions; these instruments were forerunners of the pneumatic trough, now used for the same purpose. His research in plant physiology was published in Vegetable Staticks (1727) and reappeared in 1733 as volume 1 of his Statical Essays. Volume 2, Hæmastaticks, was the most important contribution to the physiology of blood circulation since that of William Harvey. Hales was the first to quantitatively measure blood pressure, which he did by inserting a tube into a blood vessel and allowing the blood to rise up the tube. In addition, he measured the capacity of the left ventricle of the heart, the output of the heart per minute, and the speed and resistance to flow of blood in the vessels. As an inventor, he developed an artificial ventilator (a modified organ bellows) that could convey fresh air into prisons, ships' holds, and granaries.
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