- Guyon, Jeanne-Marie Bouvier de La Motte, Madame Du Chesnoy
▪ French mystic, née Bouvier De La Motte, byname Madame Guyonborn April 13, 1648, Montargis, Fr.died June 9, 1717, BloisFrench mystic and writer, a central figure in the theological debates of 17th-century France through her advocacy of Quietism, an extreme passivity and indifference of the soul, even to eternal salvation, wherein she believed that one became an agent of God.At 16 she married Jacques Guyon, lord du Chesnoy, and began to raise a family, but, at the death of her husband in 1676, she turned completely toward the mystical experiences she had long felt. Led through a long cycle of personal religious developments by Barnabite Friar François Lacombe, she left her children and began travels with Lacombe to Geneva, Turin, and Grenoble (1681–86). Regularly, the heretical nature of her teachings—which tended to exclude the external world and the mechanisms of the church—aroused the suspicions of local bishops, and she was forced to move on. During this period she published the most important of her many writings: the Moyen court et très facile de faire oraison (1685; “The Short and Very Easy Method of Prayer”). In 1687 Lacombe was put in prison, where he died, and Guyon was arrested in 1688 but was released after a few months at the intervention of Madame de Maintenon (Maintenon, Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de), second wife of Louis XIV, who introduced her to the royal circle.After her release, Guyon attracted her greatest disciple, the influential Abbé de Fénelon (1651–1715), who found in her teachings the answers to some of his own spiritual dilemmas. By 1694 Fénelon's writings, coloured by quietism, had generated a great alarm; and, in the midst of complicated political and religious maneuvers, a conference met at Issy (1695), at which Fénelon defended Guyon's teachings. Quietism, however, was officially condemned by the Roman Catholic church, Guyon was arrested and imprisoned, and Fénelon continued the pamphlet war. After her release from prison (1703), Guyon lived and wrote quietly at Blois.Her writings were published from 1712 to 1720 (45 vol., reprinted 1767–90).
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