Guericke, Otto von

Guericke, Otto von

▪ Prussian physicist, engineer, and philosopher

born Nov. 20, 1602, Magdeburg, Prussian Saxony [now in Germany]
died May 11, 1686, Hamburg
 German physicist, engineer, and natural philosopher who invented the first air pump and used it to study the phenomenon of vacuum and the role of air in combustion and respiration.

      Guericke was educated at the University of Leipzig and studied law at the University of Jena in 1621 and mathematics and mechanics at the University of Leyden in 1623. In 1631 he became an engineer in the army of Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden, and from 1646 to 1681 he was bürgermeister (mayor) of Magdeburg and magistrate for Brandenburg.

      In 1650 Guericke invented the air pump, which he used to create a partial vacuum. His studies revealed that light travels through a vacuum but sound does not. In 1654, in a famous series of experiments that were performed before Emperor Ferdinand III at Regensburg, Guericke placed two copper bowls (Magdeburg hemispheres) together to form a hollow sphere about 35.5 cm (14 inches) in diameter. After he had removed the air from the sphere, horses were unable to pull the bowls apart, even though they were held together only by the air around them. Thus the tremendous force that air pressure exerts was first demonstrated.

      In 1663 he invented the first electric generator, which produced static electricity by applying friction against a revolving ball of sulfur. In 1672 he discovered that the electricity thus produced could cause the surface of the sulfur ball to glow; hence he became the first man to view electroluminescence. Guericke also studied astronomy and predicted that comets would return regularly from outer space.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Guericke , Otto von — (1602–1686) German physicist and engineer Guericke, who was born in Magdeburg, Germany, trained in law and mathematics before becoming an engineer in the army of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden. After the Thirty Years War he returned to Magdeburg as… …   Scientists

  • GUERICKE (O. von) — GUERICKE OTTO VON (1602 1686) Physicien allemand, né à Magdeburg et mort à Hambourg. Otto de Guericke, bourgmestre de Magdeburg, se signale à l’attention du monde savant, peu après 1650, par ses expériences sur le vide et sur l’électricité, bien… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Guericke, Otto von — ► (1602 86) Físico, jurista y matemático alemán. Fue el creador de la primera máquina electrostática e inventor de la máquina neumática …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • GUERICKE, OTTO VON —    a German physicist, born at Magdeburg; experimented on air, and invented the air pump (1602 1686) …   The Nuttall Encyclopaedia

  • Otto von Guericke — Otto von Guericke, engraving by Anselmus von Hulle, (1601 1674) Born …   Wikipedia

  • Otto von Guericke — Das Porträt von Anselm van Hulle befindet sich im Schloss Gripsholm (Schweden) Otto von Guericke (Aussprache: Gericke [ˈgeːʁɪkə]) (* 20. Novemberjul./ 30. November  …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Otto von guericke — Otto von Guericke [ˈgeʁike] (né le 20 novembre …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Otto von Guericke — [ˈgeʁike], né le 20 novembre 1602 à Magdebourg et …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Otto von Guericke — Otto von Guericke. Otto von Guericke, físico alemán (Magdeburgo, 20 de noviembre de 1602 – Hamburgo, 21 de mayo de 1686). Estudió derecho en las universidades de Leipzig y Jena. Luego se dedicó a los estudios de matemática en la universidad de… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Otto-von-Guericke-Universität — Vorlage:Infobox Hochschule/Mitarbeiter fehlt Otto von Guericke Universität Magdeburg Gründung 1993 Trägerschaft Land Sachsen Anhalt …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”