- Gregorian Reform
eleventh-century religious reform movement associated with its most forceful advocate, Pope Gregory VII (Gregory VII, Saint) (reigned 1073–85). Although long associated with church-state conflict, the reform's main concerns were the moral integrity and independence of the clergy.The term Gregorian Reform was coined initially with an apologetic intent. It owes its popularity to the three-volume work La Réforme Grégorienne (1924–37) by Augustin Fliche, which placed the activities of Gregory VII in the context of church reform and emphasized the inappropriateness of the commonly used term Investiture Controversy as a description of the spiritual and intellectual reform movement of the second half of the 11th century. Today, Gregorian Reform is usually wrongly considered a synonym for investiture controversy. That controversy formed only one aspect of the transformation of spiritual values in this period and was a later and secondary development.The traditional investiture of bishops and abbots by lay rulers was first universally prohibited by Gregory VII at a council he convened at the Lateran Palace in Rome in November 1078. Thus investiture cannot be regarded as the heart of the controversy—which began in 1075—between the pontiff and King Henry IV, who, as the heir of Emperor Henry III, was considered the preeminent defender of the universal church. Henry's refusal to support papal demands for reform led Gregory to excommunicate Henry and to depose him as king in February 1076 at the annual Lenten synod. Gregory imposed this penalty after legates had presented him with letters from the German and Italian bishops renouncing their obedience to him and from Henry IV demanding the pope's resignation. Although the investiture controversy has been the focus of much attention, it was less important to reformers than the issues of canonical elections, simony (the purchase of ecclesiastical office), and clerical celibacy. These reformers had been led by the pope since about 1049, when the ecclesiastical reform movement took root in Rome.The prohibition of lay investiture was rooted in Gregory's determination to reform the troublesome state of Christendom, which had lost the original purity of the church of the Apostles (Apostle). Gregory insisted on canonically elected bishops (for dioceses), provosts or priors (for reformed canons), and abbots (for monasteries). Only they would be true shepherds, fit to guide all Christians. His ideal model for the priesthood was provided by a passage from the Gospel According to John (John, Gospel According to), which he mentioned 25 times in the letters preserved in the register documenting his reign. The verses depicting Christ as the only door to the sheepfold (John 10:1–18) are frequently cited by Gregory when he addresses the subject of canonical elections. He also points to them often in the context of simony and occasionally in connection with lay investiture. Because simony at times occurred in one form or another in conjunction with investiture, both practices were prohibited.As early as the 10th century, efforts were made to extirpate simony, a term derived from Simon Magus, a sorcerer who offered to buy the gifts of the Holy Spirit from St. Peter (Peter the Apostle, Saint) (Acts of the Apostles 8:18–19). Its canonical definition was provided by Pope Gregory I (Gregory I, Saint), who established various classifications for the illicit acquisition of ecclesiastical dignities. Simony was a flexible concept that could be used to suit different circumstances. Pope Gregory VI was deposed in 1046 because money had changed hands at the time of his election; in the presence of Gregory VII, the canons of the cathedral of Bamberg accused their bishop, Hermann, of simoniacal heresy because he had granted Bamberg estates to vassals of the king. It quickly became customary to speak of simony as a heresy, and some reformers saw its influence as especially pernicious.Simony's importance to reformers and others in the 11th century can be illustrated in a number of ways. For reformers, the debate over the validity of simoniacal ordinations was part of the broader dispute among church leaders over the efficacy of sacraments conferred by unworthy priests. In the Libri tres adversus simoniacos (1057/58; “Three Books Against the Simoniacs”), Humbert of Silva Candida maintained that all sacraments performed by simoniacs or those who were ordained by simoniacs were invalid and that “(re)ordinations” of those same clergy were necessary. The position denying any connection between the priest's character and the sacrament's validity was defended successfully by Peter Damian (Peter Damian, Saint)—the prior of the eremitical foundation Fonte Avellana and the cardinal-bishop of Ostia—and remains the basis of Catholic dogma today. The issue inspired popular uprisings against simoniacal clergy in Milan by the Patarines (Patarine), a social and religious reform group drawn mainly from the lower classes, and in Florence under the leadership of the monks of Vallombrosa. It also attracted the attention of all classes of society and of both the clergy and the laity.Besides simony and canonical elections, the most important issue for opponents and supporters of Gregorian Reform was clerical celibacy. Marriage and concubinage among the lower ranks of the clergy were customary in much of the Western church, although already forbidden by the Council of Nicaea (Nicaea, Council of) in AD 325. The reform of the 11th century was determined to eliminate this behaviour at all costs. Following the election of Pope Leo IX (Leo IX, Saint) early in 1049, the papacy issued decree after decree that required priests to give up their wives, barred the sons of priests from the priesthood except under certain conditions, and declared the women sexually involved with priests “unfree.” The decrees had little effect on supporters of clerical marriage, who could argue that the priests of the Old Testament had been married and that the custom was accepted in the Eastern church. At times the pontiffs encountered virulent opposition, particularly in 1075 at Constance when the local bishop was forced to allow married clergy to keep their positions. Pope Gregory VII was outraged that a bishop could disobey a papal decree and annulled all oaths of fealty to the bishop, who was to have been expelled by the clergy and laity of Constance. Obedience to papal legislation became a touchstone for orthodoxy under Gregory VII, and the achievements of the Gregorian Reform thus were stepping stones toward the papal monarchy of the 13th century.Uta-Renate BlumenthalAdditional ReadingAnne Llewellyn Barstow, Married Priests and the Reforming Papacy: The Eleventh-Century Debates (1982), is a lucid discussion of contemporary treatises opposing celibacy. James A. Brundage, Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe (1987, reissued 1990), is an excellent synthesis and overview. Michael Frassetto (ed.), Medieval Purity and Piety: Essays on Medieval Clerical Celibacy and Religious Reform (1998), provides a valuable introduction to all aspects of the problem of clerical chastity. John Gilchrist, “‘Simoniaca Haeresis' and the Problem of Orders from Leo IX to Gratian,” Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Medieval Canon Law (1965), pp. 209–235, is an essential introduction to the problem of simony. Uta-Renate Blumenthal, The Investiture Controversy: Church and Monarchy from the Ninth to the Twelfth Century (1988, reissued 1991; originally published in German, 1982), is a historical introduction to the entire period and its movements with a detailed bibliography organized by topics. Valuable introductions to Pope Gregory VII can be found in H.E.J. Cowdrey, Pope Gregory VII, 1073–1085 (1998), with an extensive bibliography, although the presentation is based almost exclusively on primary sources; and Gerhart B. Ladner, “Gregory the Great and Gregory VII: A Comparison of Their Concepts of Renewal,” Viator 4:1–27 (1973). Johannes Laudage, Priesterbild und Reformpapsttum im 11. Jahrhundert (1984), is an excellent introduction to the many sides of ecclesiastical reform, even though its main thesis has not met with general acceptance.
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