Gifford, William

Gifford, William

▪ British editor and scholar
born April 1756, Ashburton, Devonshire, Eng.
died Dec. 31, 1826, London
 English satirical poet, classical scholar, and early editor of 17th-century English playwrights, best known as the first editor (1809–24) of the Tory Quarterly Review, founded to combat the liberalism of the Whig Edinburgh Review. Gifford owed his editorship to his connection with the statesman George Canning (Canning, George) on The Anti-Jacobin (1797–98), a weekly of which he had been editor and in which Canning and other Tories had ridiculed revolutionary principles.

      Gifford was hostile to new developments in this era of rapid literary innovation, and he offended eminent contributors by rewriting their literary reviews to introduce political abuse. He so provoked William Hazlitt (Hazlitt, William), a leading radical critic, that Hazlitt attacked Gifford in A Letter to William Gifford, Esq. (1819) and immortalized him in a portrait etched in vitriol in The Spirit of the Age (1825).

      Orphaned at 11 and apprenticed to a shoemaker, Gifford received his education at the University of Oxford as a result of patronage. In The Baviad (1791) and The Maeviad (1795), verse satires attacking the Della-cruscans, a group of minor English writers of the 1780s who took their name from the Italian Accademia della Crusca (“Crusca Academy” (Crusca Academy)), he shows his resentment of those to whom entry to the world of letters, so difficult for him, had been (he believed) undeservedly easy. Gifford's autobiography was published in 1802. He is chiefly remembered for having published John Wilson Croker (Croker, John Wilson)'s savage attack on John Keats (Keats, John)'s Endymion (1818).

Additional Reading
John Mark Longaker, The Della Cruscans and William Gifford (1924); Hill Shine and Helen Chadwick Shine, The Quarterly Review Under Gifford (1949); Benjamin Clark, William Gifford: Tory Satirist, Critic, and Editor (1930, reissued 1967).

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