Garašanin, Ilija

Garašanin, Ilija

▪ prime minister of Serbia
original name  Ilija Savić  
born Jan. 16 [Jan. 28, New Style], 1812, Garaši, Serbia
died June 16 [June 28], 1874, Belgrade

      statesman and administrator of Serbia who was twice prime minister (1852, 1861–67).

      The son of a prominent merchant, Garašanin became a customs official in 1834 and joined the army in 1837, where he served as colonel and commander. Changing sides in the rivalry between the two dynastic families—the Obrenović and the Karadjordjević (Karadjordjević dynasty)—he went into exile when Prince Miloš Obrenović (Miloš) abdicated (1839), but then he helped to depose Prince Michael Obrenović (Michael III) ( Michael III) to pave the way for the accession of Prince Alexander Karadjordjević (Alexander) (1842). Garašanin was rewarded with the posts of home secretary (1843) and prime minister and foreign secretary (1852).

      In 1844 he wrote a memorandum entitled Naertanije (“Draft Plan”). This document, with remarkable prescience, anticipated the decline of the Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) and Habsburg (Habsburg, House of) (Austrian) empires and argued that Serbia would be well-placed to fill the resulting political vacuum. He posited that the most likely line of territorial expansion would lie through Kosovo and the Sandžak of Novi Pazar (a strip of land that separated Serbia from Montenegro), Herzegovina, Montenegro, and northern Albania. Such an expansion would give land-locked Serbia an outlet to the Adriatic Sea, particularly at the ports of Kotor (Albania) and Durrës (Montenegro). The dissatisfaction of the Christian subjects of the Ottoman sultan was to be exploited, and to this end Garašanin sought out contact with the Albanians and Serbs of Herzegovina. His plan was constantly frustrated, however, by the need of Serbia to rely on the diplomatic support of Austria. (The plan was definitively undermined by the Austrian occupation—and subsequent annexation—of Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1878, after which Serbian hopes for expansion turned toward Macedonia.)

      During the Hungarian revolution of 1848, Garašanin hoped to liberate the South Slavs of the Austrian Empire, but Alexander decided to remain neutral. Considered unfriendly by the Russians because of his pro-Western views, Garašanin was dismissed in 1853 by Alexander, under Russian pressure. He was mainly responsible for the abdication of Prince Alexander (1858) but took no part in politics during the second reign of Miloš Obrenović (1858–60).

      When Prince Michael Obrenović succeeded Miloš, Garašanin became prime minister and foreign secretary (1861–67). As during his first term as prime minister, he worked to modernize Serbia through enlightened legislation administered by an efficient bureaucracy. In foreign policy he sought to implement his “Draft Plan.” Though he was not in office during the Congress of Paris (1856), he is credited with the collective guarantee of Serbia's autonomy by the Great Powers at Paris. By 1867 he had managed to gain the withdrawal of all Turkish civil officials and garrisons from Serbia. Meanwhile, he helped to create the first Balkan League by negotiating alliances with Montenegro (1866), Greece (1867), and Romania (1868).

      Garašanin was dismissed in 1867 because of his opposition to Michael's wish to marry his cousin Katarina Konstantinović. When Prince Milan Obrenović came to the throne in 1868, Garašanin retired from politics.

      The “Draft Plan” was rediscovered after the formation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia) in 1918, when it became a symbol of Serbian domination over the newly unified South Slav state. During the disintegration of Yugoslavia after 1991, Garašanin's plan was used to justify the belief in the existence of a consistent policy, conducted by Serbian politicians over a century and a half, to create a Greater Serbia.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ilija Garasanin — Ilija Garašanin Ilija Garašanin Ilija Garašanin, en serbe cyrillique Илија Гарашанин (né le 28 janvier 1812 à Garaši près d Aranđelovac mort le 22 juin  …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ilija Garašanin — Ilija Garašanin, en serbe cyrillique Илија Гарашанин (né le 28 janvier 1812 à Garaši près d Aranđelovac mort le 22 juin 1874 à Grocka …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Garašanin — Garášanin, Ilija (1812 1874) DEFINICIJA srp. političar, predsjednik vlade i ministar vanjskih poslova Kneževine Srbije 1861 1867; autor Načertanija (1844), političkog programa koji zastupa stvaranje velike države na Balkanu pod vodstvom i… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Ilija Garašanin — Infobox President name=Ilija Garašanin Илија Гарашанин nationality=Serbian order=1st President of the Ministry of Serbia (1861 1867) term start=21 October, 1861 term end=15 November, 1867 predecessor=Filip Hristić (as Prince s Representative)… …   Wikipedia

  • Serbia — /serr bee euh/, n. a former kingdom in S Europe: now, with revised boundaries, a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, in the N part; includes the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. 9,660,000; 34,116 sq. mi. (88,360 sq. km). Cap.:… …   Universalium

  • Načertanije — Načertànije DEFINICIJA v. Garašanin (Ilija) …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • Gross-Serbien — Die von der serbischen Partei Srpska Radikalna Stranka angestrebten Grenzen von Großserbien (Virovitica Karlovac Karlobag Linie) Das Schlagwort Großserbien (Serbisch: Велика Србија/Velika Srbija, dt. das Große Serbien) wird verwendet, um ein… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Groß-serbien — Die von der serbischen Partei Srpska Radikalna Stranka angestrebten Grenzen von Großserbien (Virovitica Karlovac Karlobag Linie) Das Schlagwort Großserbien (Serbisch: Велика Србија/Velika Srbija, dt. das Große Serbien) wird verwendet, um ein… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Großserbien — Die von der serbischen Partei Srpska Radikalna Stranka angestrebten Grenzen von Großserbien (Virovitica Karlovac Karlobag Linie) Das Schlagwort Großserbien (Serbisch: Велика Србија/Velika Srbija, dt. das Große Serbien) wird verwendet, um ein… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Liste Des Chefs De Gouvernement De Serbie — Serbie Cet article fait partie de la série sur la politique de la Serbie, sous série sur la politique …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”