Gallatin, Albert

Gallatin, Albert

▪ United States government official
in full  Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin  
born Jan. 29, 1761, Geneva, Switz.
died Aug. 12, 1849, Astoria, N.Y., U.S.
 fourth U.S. secretary of the Treasury (1801–14). He insisted upon a continuity of sound governmental fiscal policies when the Republican (Jeffersonian) Party assumed national political power, and he was instrumental in negotiating an end to the War of 1812.

      Gallatin plunged into business and public life after emigrating to the New World at age 19. Settling in Pennsylvania, he became a mainstay of the Anti-Federalists (and, later, the Jeffersonian Republicans) in that area and in 1795 was elected to the House of Representatives. There he inaugurated the House Committee on Finance, which later grew into the powerful Ways and Means Committee. In 1797–98 he helped to reduce Federalist-sponsored expenditures aimed at promoting hostilities with France. He was bitterly denounced by Federalists in Congress, and, when the Alien and Sedition Acts were passed in 1798, Thomas Jefferson believed they were partly intended to drive Gallatin from office.

      As secretary of the Treasury, Gallatin stressed simplicity in government and termination of the public debt. Despite heavy naval expenditures and the $15,000,000 Louisiana Purchase (1803), he managed to reduce the public debt by $23,000,000 within eight years.

      The declaration of war with Great Britain in 1812 shattered all of Gallatin's most cherished schemes, for he felt war to be fatal to the nation's prosperity and progress. He therefore put the nation's finances in the best order he could and set himself to attain an early peace. Grasping at Russia's proffered mediation of the war, he sailed for Europe in May 1813. Refusing to deal through Russia, Great Britain expressed its willingness to proceed with direct negotiations, and commissioners from the two countries finally met at Ghent in August 1814. In the tedious discussions that followed, Gallatin played the leading role, preserving peace among his colleagues and establishing an enviable reputation as a diplomat. Peace was signed in the Treaty of Ghent (December 24).

      While still in Europe, Gallatin was appointed minister to France (served 1816–23), after which he returned to the United States, only to be embroiled in a bitter intraparty political struggle. After serving briefly as minister to Great Britain (1826–27), he retired from public life and became president of the National (later the Gallatin) Bank in New York City (1831–39). A student of the Indian tribes in North America, he founded the American Ethnological Society of New York (1842) and has sometimes been called the “father of American ethnology (cultural anthropology).”

      (For Gallatin's opinion of the Mexican-American War (1846–48), see primary source document: The Unjust War with Mexico. (Unjust War with Mexico))

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Нужен реферат?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Gallatin, Albert — (1761 1849)    American statesman. Bk United States secretary of the treasury, 81, 108.    Bib.: Cyc. Am. Biog.; Adams, Writings of Albert Gallatin; Adams, Life of Gallatin …   The makers of Canada

  • Albert Gallatin — Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (* 29. Januar 1761 in Genf; † 12. August 1849 in Astoria (heute Teil von Queens), New York) war ein US amerikanischer Politiker (Demokratisch Republikanische Partei), Ethnologe …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Albert Gallatin — Albert Gallatin. Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin (Ginebra, Suiza, 29 de enero de 1761 Astoria, Nueva York, 12 de agosto de 1849) fue un etnólogo, lingüista, político, diplomático, y Secretario del Tesoro de Estados Unidos …   Wikipedia Español

  • Albert Gallatin — Infobox US Cabinet official name=Albert Gallatin order=4th title=United States Secretary of the Treasury term start=May 14, 1801 term end=February 8, 1814 predecessor=Samuel Dexter successor=George W. Campbell birth date=birth date|1761|1|29|mf=y …   Wikipedia

  • Gallatin — /gal euh tin/, n. 1. Albert, 1761 1849, U.S. statesman: Secretary of the Treasury 1801 13. 2. a town in N Tennessee. 17,191. * * * ▪ Tennessee, United States       city, seat of Sumner county, north central Tennessee, U.S., near the Cumberland… …   Universalium

  • Albert Gallatin — Mandats 4e Secrétaire du Trésor des États Unis …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Albert Gallatin Area School District — is a school district located in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. It is named after Albert Gallatin former U.S. Secretary of the Treasury and founder of New York University. It serves the boroughs of Masontown, Fairchance, Point Marion, and… …   Wikipedia

  • Albert Mackey — Albert Gallatin Mackey (March 12 1807 ndash; June 20 1881) was an American medical doctor, and is best known for his authorship of many books and articles about freemasonry, particularly Masonic Landmarks. He served as Grand Lecturer and Grand… …   Wikipedia

  • Gallatin — may refer to the following:Places*Gallatin, Missouri *Gallatin, New York *Gallatin, Tennessee *Gallatin, Texas *Gallatin County *Gallatin Field Airport in Bozeman, Montana *Gallatin National Forest, in MontanaPeople*Albert Gallatin (1761 1849),… …   Wikipedia

  • Albert G. Mackey — Albert Mackey Albert Mackey (1807 1881) était un médecin américain connu pour ses nombreux ouvrages sur la franc maçonnerie, et plus particulièrement les principes fondateurs maçonniques. Il fut grand lecteur et grand secrétaire de la loge de la… …   Wikipédia en Français

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”