- Francis of Sales, Saint
▪ French bishopalso called Francis De Sales, French Saint François De Salesborn Aug. 21, 1567, Thorens-Glières, Savoydied Dec. 28, 1622, Lyon; canonized 1665; feast day January 24Roman Catholic bishop of Geneva and doctor of the church, who was active in the struggle against Calvinism and cofounded the order of Visitation Nuns. He wrote the devotional classic Introduction to a Devout Life (3rd definitive edition, 1609), which emphasized that spiritual perfection is possible for people busy with the affairs of the world and not only, as many believed at the time, for those who withdraw from society. In 1923 Pope Pius XI named him patron saint of writers.He was educated at the Jesuit college of Clermont in Paris (1580–88) and at Padua, Italy, where he received a doctorate in law (1591). After briefly practicing law he turned to religion and was ordained in 1593 at Annecy, chief town of his native Savoy. Francis began intense missionary work in Chablais, a district that had broken away from Savoy and had become Calvinist but had been regained by the duke of Savoy, Charles Emmanuel (Charles Emmanuel I), an ardent Catholic. Under his protection, Francis rewon the bulk of the people of Chablais to Catholicism. Francis was consecrated bishop of Geneva on Dec. 8, 1602. In 1610, with St. Jane Frances de Chantal, he founded the Visitation of Holy Mary (the Visitation Nuns), which became principally a teaching order.Francis was the first to receive a solemn beatification at St. Peter's, Rome (1661). In 1877 he became the first writer in French to be named doctor of the church. In addition to his spiritual works, his writings include controversies against Calvinists, letters, sermons, and documents on diocesan administration.Additional ReadingJohn K. Ryan (trans.), Introduction to the Devout Life, 2nd rev. ed. (1966, reprinted 1989); Henry Benedict Mackey (trans.), Treatise on the Love of God, 3rd ed. (1884, reprinted 1997); Maurice Henry-Coüannier, Saint Francis de Sales and His Friends (1964); André Ravier, Francis de Sales, Sage and Saint (1988); Wendy M. Wright, Bond of Perfection: Jeanne de Chantel & François de Sales (1985).
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