- Fortuny, Mariano
▪ Spanish painter [1838-74]in full Mariano José María Bernardo Fortuny Y Marsalborn June 11, 1838, Reus, Spaindied Nov. 21, 1874, Rome, ItalySpanish painter whose vigorous technique and anecdotal themes won him a considerable audience in the mid-19th century.After four years at the Academy of Barcelona, Fortuny in 1858 won the Prix de Rome, which enabled him to complete his studies at Rome. In 1859 he was chosen by provincial authorities to go to Morocco to paint the scenes of the war between Spain and the emperor of Morocco. He soon returned to Spain but spent all of his remaining years in Rome, except for a year in Paris (1869–70). In Paris he entered into business relations with the noted art dealer Goupil; their association brought him large sums for his paintings and an international reputation.Fortuny painted occasional large works, e.g., the huge “Battle of Tetuan,” based on an incident in the Moroccan campaign and a fine example of pictorial reportage, charged with action and energy. More characteristic, however, are his small genre paintings filled with fine detail, works that attempted to recapture the grace and charm of an imaginary 18th-century scene.▪ Spanish-Italian multimedia artist [1871-1949]in full Mariano Fortuny y Madrazoborn , May 11, 1871, Granada, Spaindied May 3, 1949, Venice, Italypainter, inventor, photographer, and fashion designer best known for his dress and textile designs.Fortuny was the son of a Spanish genre painter, Mariano Fortuny. His father died in 1874, and the boy was reared in Paris, where he studied painting with his uncle. In 1889 he moved with his mother to Venice, and he spent the rest of his life there. While painting he also became interested in photography and theatre set design. Influenced by the Arts and Crafts Movement, he learned to control all aspects of his designs; for the theatre he created innovative lighting techniques, and he invented his own fabric dyes and fabrics, as well as machinery for printing cloth. He held more than 20 patents for his inventions.About 1907 Fortuny's dress designs, many of them inspired by ancient Greek garments such as the tunic and the peplos, became extremely popular among the wealthy. The silk dresses that he designed were perhaps most remarkable for their subtle colouring and for the freedom of movement that they allowed. Some of these dresses were simple in execution, while others of similar design had hundreds of tiny pleats that ran from neck to foot. Fortuny drew inspiration for his many textile designs in cotton and velvet from a number of international sources; they are characterized by rich, sensuous colouring. Numerous examples of his work can be found in his former home—now the Fortuny Museum—in Venice.
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