plural  foedera  

      treaty or compact contracted by ancient Rome with one or more allied states (foederati). The treaty contained various conditions establishing permanent friendly relations between the contracting parties. A foedus aequum was a bilateral agreement recognizing both parties as equals obliged to assist each other in defensive wars or when otherwise called upon, in perpetuity. A foedus iniquum defined Rome as superior, the second party being bound to assist Rome in offensive wars, thus limiting the ally's sovereignty. Foedera were negotiated by Roman commanders and confirmed by vote of the centuriate assembly (comitia centuriata). The compacts were inscribed on bronze tablets and either displayed in public or kept in temples or other public buildings.

      The earliest known foedus is the Foedus Cassianum signed by the consul Spurius Cassius Vecellinus in 493 BC, which established a common army of defense between the Romans and the collective Latin states. The terms of the treaty are preserved in the work of the Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Roman Antiquities), and the treaty was kept on public display, according to Cicero (Speech in Defense of Balbus). As Rome gained dominance over the Italian peninsula, the Latin, Etruscan, and Italian polities lost their status as equals, eventually becoming provinces of Rome. Similarly, earlier Roman treaties with states outside Italy were usually equal, but the growth of Roman power in the Mediterranean eventually led to the subordination of the foederati. In time they lost both their local autonomy and their freedom from payment of tribute; this was especially true in the western provinces of the empire (after 27 BC). Certain peoples and rulers, however, termed socii et amici populi Romani (“allies and friends of the Roman people”) were given intermediate status between complete autonomy and organization as a Roman province. They usually paid tribute to Rome, while Rome was spared the burden of direct rule—which meant not having to underwrite the cost of defensive forces that would be a drain on the Roman treasury. Such status, however, was a privilege that could be revoked at any time.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • FOEDUS — vel a FIDE, quod in foedere interponatur fides, Fest, vel, quod in eo feta porca foede et crudeliter feriretur; vel a Foecialibus, i. e. Sacerdotibus, per quos olim Foedere fiebant, Gr. ςπονδὴ libando, item συνθήκη, συνθεσία appellatum, obligatio …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Foedus — (lat.), 1) Bündniß; 2) Testament …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • foedus — index confederacy (compact), league, loathsome, pact, repulsive Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • Foedus —   [lateinisch] das, / Födera, im antiken Rom der beschworene, zur Verhinderung seiner Nichteinhaltung mit einer Fluchformel belegte Vertrag (Bündnis oder Friedensvertrag) …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Foedus — Das foedus (Plural foedera) war in der römischen Republik die gängige Form des zwischenstaatlichen Vertrages und noch bis in die Spätantike ein wichtiges Instrument römischer Außenpolitik. Ein foedus wurde u. a. vom pater patratus aus dem… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Foedus — Fœdus Le fœdus (alliance ou pacte en latin) est un traité passé entre l Empire romain et une cité ou un peuple étranger, qui prend alors le statut de cité fédérée ou de peuple fédéré . Le mot fœdus dérive du mot latin fides, qui désigne la bonne… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Foedus — მე 16 და მე 17 საუკუნეებში ფედერალიზმის ცნების განვითარებაში დიდი როლი შეასრულა ფედერალურმა თეოლოგიამ.8 ფედერალური თეოლოგია, უწინარეს ყოვლისა, არის რეფორმაციის, უფრო სწორად, მისი რადიკალური მიმართულების შვილი (თუმცა მას უფრო ღრმა იდეოლოგიური… …   Georgian encyclopedia

  • Foedus Cassianum — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Según la tradición romana, el Foedus Cassianum o Tratado de Cassius fue un tratado que formó una alianza entre la República romana y la Liga Latina en 493 a. C. tras la Batalla del Lago Regilo. Este tratado terminó… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Foedus Cassianum — According to Roman tradition, the Foedus Cassianum, or the Treaty of Cassius, was a treaty which formed an alliance between the Roman Republic and the Latin League in 493 BC after the Battle of Lake Regillus. It ended the war between the Latin… …   Wikipedia

  • Foedus Cassianum — Das Foedus Cassianum (deutsch „cassischer Vertrag“) war ein Vertrag zwischen der römischen Republik und den Latinern, der vermutlich im Jahre 370 v. Chr. geschlossen wurde. Nach der antiken Auffassung wurde der Vertrag, der noch zur Zeit Ciceros… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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