- Faroese literature
Introductionthe body of writings produced by inhabitants of the Faroe Islands in the Faroese and the Danish languages.EmergenceModern Faroese literature, as written in the Faroese language, emerged during the second half of the 19th century. Until this time, the literary tradition of the Faroe Islands was almost exclusively oral. It consisted principally of ballads, epic and fantastic in style and centred on legends such as that of Siegfried (Sigurd). A new, national written literature in Faroese became possible only after the language's orthography was normalized by means of rules introduced in 1846 by the linguist and folklorist Venceslaus Ulricus Hammershaimb. Its development was promoted by nationalist agitation, which hastened the restoration of the old Faroese parliament in 1852 and the end of the Danish royal trade monopoly in 1856. Prior to the 19th century, Danish had been the language of religion, education, and administration in the Faroe Islands for centuries.Patriotic poetry constituted most of the literature of these early formative years. The most memorable examples of these emotional songs were produced by Fríðrikur Petersen, Rasmus Effersøe, and Jóannes Patursson.Development during the 20th centuryFaroese literature came into its own after the turn of the 20th century, although only after World War II did Faroese attain its status as an official language of the Faroe Islands, where it is today used in all areas of social life. Jens H.O. Djurhuus, who created rhetorical poetry, was the first to emerge as a writer of international stature. His brother, Hans Andrias Djurhuus, wrote poems, fairy tales, and plays that were based on native historical traditions and legends.Five writers dominated the Faroese literary scene from about the 1930s through mid-century, a period often referred to as the Faroese golden age. Of these authors, two novelists, Jørgen-Frantz Jacobsen and William Heinesen (Heinesen, William), wrote in Danish and made important contributions to modern Danish prose fiction, Jacobsen with his novel Barbara (1939), a portrait of a capricious woman, and Heinesen with his masterpiece De fortabte spillemænd (1950; The Lost Musicians). Here, as in the rest of his varied writings, Heinesen renders Faroese life as a microcosm illustrative of social, psychological, and cosmic themes. The other three authors—Christian Matras, Heðin Brú (Brú, Hedin) (Hans Jakob Jacobsen), and Martin Joensen—wrote in Faroese. The works of Matras reveal a profound lyric poet seeking to interpret the essence of Faroese culture. A fine stylist, Brú did much to create a Faroese literary prose in his portrayals of village life in a time of transition (e.g., Feðgar á ferð [1940; The Old Man and His Sons]). Joensen's novels and short stories are of a similar character, but their emphasis is on psychological realism rather than on style. A prose writer of a distinctly more modern bent is Jens Pauli Heinesen. His works reflect an approach to Faroese life that is generally more international than that of Brú or Joensen and that is infused with a certain satiric element. Gunnar Hoydal, also a poet, is known primarily for his short stories and travel accounts, written in sensitive prose. The number of Faroese women writers is small. Foremost among contemporary prose writers is Oddvør Johansen, whose epic novels, their themes drawn from modern Faroese history, have been translated into other Scandinavian languages.Poetry continues to attract many Faroese writers. Karsten Hoydal was the first Faroese writer to compose verse directly influenced by modern foreign poets; he also translated many of their works, especially those of American poet and novelist Edgar Lee Masters. Regin Dahl and Steinbjørn B. Jacobsen have gone much farther in their modernism, the latter adopting a style somewhat akin to the Imagism (Imagist) of the American poet Ezra Pound. Rói Patursson, an experimental poet and a representative of the 1960s generation, voiced support in his socially engaged poetry for the downtrodden in society. Other writers whose works exhibit a modernist tendency include Guðrið Helmsdal, the foremost Faroese woman poet at the turn of the 21st century. Malan Poulsen, another woman poet, turned to Faroese legends for inspiration and imagery.Walton Glyn Jones Virpi ZuckAdditional ReadingSven H. Rossel (ed.), A History of Danish Literature (1992), includes a chapter that surveys Faroese literature. Hedin Brønner (trans. and ed.), Faroese Short Stories, trans. from Faroese and Danish (1972), is an anthology.
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