- epinephrine and norepinephrine
▪ hormonetwo separate but related hormones secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands (adrenal gland). They are also produced at the ends of sympathetic nerve fibres, where they serve as chemical mediators for conveying the nerve impulses to effector organs. Chemically, the two compounds differ only slightly; and they exert similar pharmacological actions, which resemble the effects of stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. They are, therefore, classified as sympathomimetic agents. The active secretion of the adrenal medulla contains approximately 80 percent epinephrine and 20 percent norepinephrine; but this proportion is reversed in the sympathetic nerves, which contain predominantly norepinephrine.The actions of epinephrine and norepinephrine are generally similar, although they differ from each other in certain of their effects. Norepinephrine constricts almost all blood vessels, while epinephrine causes constriction in many networks of minute blood vessels but dilates the blood vessels in the skeletal muscles and the liver. Both hormones increase the rate and force of contraction of the heart, thus increasing the output of blood from the heart and increasing the blood pressure. The hormones also have important metabolic actions. Epinephrine stimulates the breakdown of glycogen to glucose in the liver, which results in the raising of the level of blood sugar. Both hormones increase the level of circulating free fatty acids. The extra amounts of glucose and fatty acids can be used by the body as fuel in times of stress or danger where increased alertness or exertion is required. Epinephrine is sometimes called the emergency hormone because it is released during stress and its stimulatory effects fortify and prepare an animal for either “fight or flight.”The purified, active compounds are used clinically and are obtained from the adrenal glands of domesticated animals or prepared synthetically. Epinephrine may be injected into the hearts of victims of cardiac arrest to stimulate heart activity. It also dilates the bronchioles and in this way is an aid to respiration for asthma sufferers. Epinephrine is also useful in acute allergic disorders, such as drug reactions, hives, and hay fever. Norepinephrine is administered by intravenous infusion to combat the acute fall in blood pressure associated with certain types of shock. Norepinephrine is formed in the body from the amino acid tyrosine, and epinephrine is in turn formed from norepinephrine. The Swedish physiologist Ulf von Euler (Euler, Ulf von) discovered norepinephrine in the mid-1940s.
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