- England, John
▪ American bishopborn Sept. 23, 1786, Cork, County Cork, Ire.died April 11, 1842, Charleston, S.C., U.S.Irish-born American Roman Catholic prelate who became the first bishop of Charleston and who founded the first Roman Catholic newspaper in the United States.Ordained in 1808, England became an instructor at St. Patrick's Seminary, Cork, where in 1812 he was made president. His outspoken opposition to governmental intervention in the selection of Irish and English bishops displeased some of his superiors, and he was transferred in 1817 to the nearby village of Bandon as parish priest.While serving there, he was named bishop of the new diocese of Charleston—comprising the states of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia—and was consecrated in Ireland (Sept. 21, 1820). Seeing that the first need of his diocese was education, he prepared and printed a catechism and a missal for Americans. He founded the United States Catholic Miscellany, the first Roman Catholic newspaper in the United States, which continued publication until 1861. He began two schools: the Philosophical and Classical Seminary for boys and an academy, conducted by the Ursulines, for girls. For the care of the sick and orphans he founded a religious community, the Sisters of Our Lady of Mercy. To assist immigrants and workingmen he organized the Brotherhood of San Marino. His attempt to found a school for free blacks was blocked by public opposition.In 1833 England was appointed apostolic delegate to Haiti, the first important diplomatic mission given to a prelate in the United States. His efforts to secure a concordat were, however, unsuccessful. An eloquent orator, he was the first Roman Catholic clergyman invited to speak before the U.S. Congress (1826), where for two hours he described the doctrines of his church. He became a U.S. citizen in the same year.
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