Dietrich, Josef

Dietrich, Josef

▪ German military officer
byname  Sepp 
born May 28, 1892, Hawangen, Germany
died April 21, 1966, Ludwigsburg, West Germany

      German SS officer who commanded Adolf Hitler (Hitler, Adolf)'s bodyguard and later led an SS panzer (armoured) army in World War II.

      A butcher's apprentice, Dietrich joined the German army in 1911 and rose to the rank of sergeant during World War I. An early acquaintance of Hitler, he joined the Nazi Party's paramilitary organization, the SA (Storm Troopers), in 1923, worked at various jobs after the failure of Hitler's Beer Hall Putsch that year, and rejoined the Nazi Party in 1928, becoming a member of the SS (the elite corps of the party). He soon became the commander of Hitler's bodyguard and acted as Hitler's chauffeur during automobile tours throughout Germany. Dietrich was elected a Nazi member of the Reichstag (German parliament) in 1930, and by 1931 he had achieved the rank of Gruppenführer (lieutenant general) in the SS.

      The special SS unit that Dietrich founded in 1932 evolved into the Leibstandarte-SS Adolf Hitler (LAH), which served as Hitler's personal army and later became a division in the Waffen-SS. As a reward for the role played by the LAH in the violent purge of Ernst Röhm (Röhm, Ernst) and other high-ranking SA officers in June 1934, Dietrich was promoted to SS-Obergruppenführer (general). An able field commander with good battle intuition, Dietrich continued to head the LAH, leading it into battle at Kharkov and Kursk on the Eastern Front. In 1943 the LAH was expanded into the I SS Panzer Corps. In June 1944 this unit was called to the Western Front, where Dietrich joined the desperate resistance to the Allied invasion of Normandy (Normandy Invasion). Promoted to SS-Oberstgruppenführer (colonel general), he was given command of the regrouped, though much depleted, Fifth Panzer Army, which served as the rear guard of the German retreat across northern France. In October 1944 he was placed in command of the Sixth Panzer Army, which spearheaded the German offensive through the Ardennes in the Battle of the Bulge (Bulge, Battle of the). He led this unit in Hungary and Austria during the closing phase of the war.

      Upon surrendering to American forces in May 1945, Dietrich was held partly responsible for the murder of American prisoners at Malmédy by SS troops during the Ardennes offensive. In 1946 he was sentenced to 25 years' imprisonment, and he was released after serving 10 years of his sentence. In 1957 he was convicted in a German court for his role in Hitler's purge of the SA in 1934 and served another 20 months in prison on this charge.

Additional Reading
Franz Kurowski, “Dietrich and Manteuffel,” in Correlli Barnett (ed.), Hitler's Generals (1989), pp. 411–437, covers Dietrich's role in World War II and provides a chronology of his life.

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