▪ Indian music
      in Hindustani music, ancient vocal musical form in four parts preceded by extensive introductory improvisation (ālāpa) and expanded by rhythmic and melodic elaborations. It is related to the shorter, later kayāl, which has somewhat eclipsed the dhrupad in popularity.

      The classical dhrupad, heavy and majestic in style, required great breath control. It was used in praise of heroes, gods, and kings.

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