byname of  Deutsches Elektronen-synchrotron , English  German Electron Synchrotron 

      the largest centre for high-energy particle-physics (physics) research in Germany. DESY, founded in 1959, is located in Hamburg and is funded jointly by the German federal government and the city of Hamburg. Its particle-accelerator facilities are an international resource, serving thousands of physicists and scientists representing more than 30 countries around the world. DESY currently supports research initiatives in three major areas: the design and construction of particle accelerators (particle accelerator), the characteristics of high-energy subatomic particles (subatomic particle), and the applications of synchrotron radiation.

      The first DESY particle accelerator was an electron synchrotron, completed in 1964, which was able to accelerate electrons (electron) to an energy level of 7.4 gigaelectron volts (GeV; 7.4 billion electron volts (electron volt)). The Double Ring Storage Facility (DORIS), completed 10 years later, was designed to collide beams (colliding-beam storage ring) of electrons and positrons (positron) at energies of 3.5 GeV per beam (upgraded to 5 GeV per beam in 1978). Now in its third version as DORIS III, this machine is no longer used as a collider (colliding-beam storage ring); its electron beam serves as a source of synchrotron radiation (mainly at X-ray and ultraviolet (ultraviolet radiation) wavelengths) for the Hamburg Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (HASYLAB). HASYLAB is a national user research facility administered within DESY that invites scientists to explore the applications of synchrotron-radiation research in molecular biology, materials science, chemistry, geophysics, and medicine.

      In 1978 DESY completed construction of the Positron-Electron Tandem Ring Accelerator (PETRA), a larger collider capable of reaching 19 GeV per beam. In 1979 experiments with PETRA yielded the first direct evidence for the existence of gluons (gluon), the messenger particles of the strong force that bind quarks (quark) together within protons (proton) and neutrons (neutron). PETRA now serves as a preaccelerator for the laboratory's newest facility, the Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator (HERA), which was completed in 1992. HERA is the only particle accelerator capable of bringing about collisions between beams of electrons or positrons and beams of protons. HERA consists of two rings in a single tunnel with a circumference of 6.3 km (3.9 miles). One ring accelerates electrons or positrons to 30 GeV; the other, protons to 820 GeV. It is being used to unlock the inner structure of the proton—to study the energy and range at which gluons interact with quarks within the proton and to explore how the combination of quarks within the proton gives rise to its observed spin.

      Physicists at DESY, in collaboration with American and Swedish research groups, participate in the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) research project at the South Pole. AMANDA utilizes thousands of photomultiplier-tube (photomultiplier tube) detectors—installed at a depth of 2 km (1.2 miles) beneath the surface of the Antarctic ice—to observe the weak interactions with matter of neutrinos (neutrino) emitted by high-energy cosmic-ray (cosmic ray) sources.

Christine Sutton

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Universalium. 2010.

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