- Degas, Edgar
▪ French artistIntroductionborn July 19, 1834, Paris, Francedied September 27, 1917, ParisFrench painter, sculptor, and printmaker who was prominent in the Impressionist (Impressionism) group and widely celebrated for his images of Parisian life. Degas's principal subject was the human—especially the female—figure, which he explored in works ranging from the sombre portraits of his early years to the studies of laundresses, cabaret singers, milliners, and prostitutes of his Impressionist period. Ballet dancers and women washing themselves would preoccupy him throughout his career. Degas was the only Impressionist to truly bridge the gap between traditional academic art and the radical movements of the early 20th century, a restless innovator who often set the pace for his younger colleagues. Acknowledged as one of the finest draftsmen of his age, Degas experimented with a wide variety of media, including oil, pastel, gouache, etching, lithography, monotype, wax modeling, and photography. In his last decades, both his subject matter and technique became simplified, resulting in a new art of vivid colour and expressive form, and in long sequences of closely linked compositions. Once marginalized as a “painter of dancers,” Degas is now counted among the most complex and innovative figures of his generation, credited with influencing Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, and many of the leading figurative artists of the 20th century.BeginningsBorn in Paris just south of Montmartre, Degas always remained a proud Parisian, living and working in the same area of the city throughout his career. Though detailed knowledge of his middle-class family is limited, it is known that they maintained the outward forms of polite society and that they were related to minor aristocracy in Italy and to the business community in New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S. The family was also prosperous enough to send Degas in 1845 to a leading boys' school, the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, where he received a conventional classical education. Music featured prominently in the Degas home, where the artist's mother sang opera arias and his father arranged occasional recitals, one of which is represented in Degas's painting of 1872, Lorenzo Pagans and Auguste De Gas. The artist's mother died when he was 13 years old, leaving three sons and two daughters to be brought up by his father, a banker by profession. Knowledgeable about art but conservative in his preferences, Degas's father helped to develop his son's interest in painting and in 1855 encouraged him to register at the École des Beaux-Arts under the supervision of Louis Lamothe, a minor follower of J.-A.-D. Ingres. Surviving works from this period show Degas's aptitude for drawing and his attention to the historical precedents he viewed in the Louvre. He also began his first solemn explorations of the self-portrait.In 1856 Degas surprisingly abandoned his studies in Paris, using his father's funds to embark on a three-year period of travel and study in Italy, where he immersed himself in the painting and sculpture of antiquity, the trecento, and the Renaissance. Staying first with relatives in Naples, he later worked in Rome and Florence, filling notebooks with sketches of faces, historic buildings, and the landscape, and with hundreds of rapid pencil copies from frescoes and oil paintings he admired. Among these were copies after Giotto, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, and Titian, artists who were to echo through his compositions for decades; the inclusion of less-expected works, however, such as those by Sir Anthony Van Dyck and Frans Snyders, hinted at wider interests. The same sketchbooks include written notes and reflections, as well as drafts for his own figure-based paintings in a variety of eclectic styles. Together they suggest a literate and serious young artist with high ambitions, but one who still lacked direction.Colour and lineFrom his beginnings, Degas seemed equally attracted to the severity of line and to the sensuous delights of colour, echoing a historic tension that was still much debated in his time. In Italy he consciously modeled some drawings on the linear restraint of the Florentine masters, such as Michelangelo, although he gradually acknowledged the lure of the Venetian painters, such as Titian, and their densely hued surfaces. Characteristically, the young Degas developed a near reverence for Ingres (Ingres, J.-A.-D), the 19th-century champion of Classical line, while almost guiltily imitating Eugène Delacroix (Delacroix, Eugène), who was the leading proponent of lyrical colour in the century and considered to be Ingres's antithesis. Many of the pictures of Degas's maturity grew out of a confrontation between these impulses, which arguably found resolution in the vigorously drawn and brilliantly coloured pastels of his later years.Returning to Paris in April 1859, Degas attempted to launch himself through the established art-world channels of the day, though with little success. He painted large portraits of family members and grandiose, historically inspired canvases such as The Daughter of Jephthah and Semiramis Building Babylon, intending to submit them to the annual state-sponsored Salon. Each work was painstakingly prepared in drawings that still rank among the most beautiful of his career, but he found the paintings themselves difficult to complete to his satisfaction. Perhaps humbled by his exposure to the Italian masters, Degas scraped down and reworked parts of his own canvases, initiating a habit of technical self-criticism that was to last a lifetime. In 1865 his more simply executed Scene of War in the Middle Ages was accepted by the Salon jury, but it remained almost unnoticed in the thronged exhibition halls. The following year his dramatic painting The Steeplechase was again met with indifference, despite its startlingly close-up view of a contemporary horse race that seems, in retrospect, like the public announcement of a transformation in his art.Realism and ImpressionismDegas's transition to modern subject matter, evident in The Steeplechase, was a long and gradual one, not an overnight conversion. Before he left Italy, he had made drawings of street characters and paintings of fashionable horse-riders, but always on a small scale. In Paris in the early 1860s, his pictures of French racing events broke new ground both for their decidedly contemporary subject matter and for their surprising viewpoints and bold colours, which preceded the canvases of similar scenes by his renowned contemporary Édouard Manet (Manet, Édouard). Degas's portraits, too, at this time became less remote and more actively engaged with the top-hatted, restless world in which he lived. When he met Manet around 1862, Degas developed an affectionate but pointed rivalry with the slightly older man and soon shared something of Manet's oppositional stance toward the artistic establishment and its traditional subject matter. Degas's notebooks from these years teem with contrary possibilities for the direction of his art, as sketches of the countryside follow glimpses of theatrical performances, and studies from objects in the Louvre are interspersed among topical caricatures. After mid-decade he abandoned historical themes, sending a portrait of a current ballet star at the Paris Opéra, Eugénie Fiocre, to the Salon of 1868; he would soon reject such official exhibitions altogether.By 1870 Degas was a familiar figure in independent art circles in Paris, at home with Realists such as James Tissot (Tissot, James) and Henri Fantin-Latour (Fantin-Latour, Henri), acquainted with the vanguard critics Edmond Duranty and Champfleury, and involved as an occasional but forceful presence at the Café Guérbois, where avant-garde artists such as Pierre-Auguste Renoir (Renoir, Pierre-Auguste), Camille Pissarro, and Claude Monet would also meet. He was famously opinionated, supporting these radical artists' shared belief that painting should engage with the sights and subjects of the modern world. As part of his own process of engaging with modernity, he self-consciously aligned himself with Realist novelists such as Émile Zola (Zola, Émile) and Edmond and Jules Goncourt (Goncourt, Edmond and Jules), drafting illustrations for their novels and briefly adopting a similar social descriptiveness.Like most of the future Impressionists (Impressionism), Degas lightened his palette and adopted more abrupt, simplified compositions during this period, partly under the influence of Japanese prints, which were very popular among contemporary artists. But, unlike his colleagues, who were experimenting with painting en plein-air, Degas affected disdain toward the improvised outdoor landscape studies for which many of the Impressionists became known. Although he clung to the habit of drawing in preparation for his pictures and insisted on working in the studio rather than outdoors, in 1869 Degas did experiment in private with a series of pastel landscapes executed on the Normandy coast. While he is not generally associated with them, he would turn to other rural subjects on several occasions in later life. Degas's advancing self-confidence at this date, boosted by the first signs of public recognition, is palpable in his letters and the range of his technical accomplishment.The early 1870s were critical in defining Degas's personal and artistic trajectory, as they were for the other artists who would be known as the Impressionists. Between 1870 and 1873 he painted a pioneering group of ballet rehearsal and performance scenes, such as his Dance Class of 1871, finding eager buyers for many of them and soon becoming identified with their theme. The dance allowed Degas to test his skills in a daring new context: the world of the Paris Opéra was surrounded by sexual intrigue as well as high glamour and had previously been the province of popular illustrators. Degas built on his knowledge of past art, but he cleverly directed it at audiences of his own day in his choice of subject matter; his views of backstage activity are conspicuously casual and occasionally scurrilous. In 1874 he was one of the leading organizers of the first Impressionist exhibition (which he called “a salon of Realists”), showing his signature repertoire of dancers, horse races, and women ironing.Astonishingly, these developments coincided with or followed the terrible months of the Franco-German War, when Paris was besieged and Degas and several of his colleagues enlisted in the National Guard to defend the city. Escaping the worst horrors of the Commune, Degas left in 1872 for a protracted visit to his relatives in New Orleans, where he pursued his experiments in family portraiture in spectacular works such as the Cotton Market at New Orleans (1873). Over this same period he began to describe a deterioration in his eyesight, complaining of intolerance to bright light and wondering if he might soon be blind.The pictures Degas showed at the series of eight Impressionist exhibitions, held between 1874 and 1886, revealed him at his most inventive. Whereas the paintings of Claude Monet, Alfred Sisley, Paul Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, Camille Pissarro, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir were largely concerned with the landscape or with figures of rural toil and urban glamour, Degas specialized in startling and enigmatic scenes of Parisian life. Visitors were frequently disconcerted by his images of popular entertainment or back-street squalor, depicted with a sharp eye for the topical gesture and heightened by a radical use of perspective, which embodied the extreme viewpoints of a newly mobile society. Already famed for his dry humour, Degas seemed to tease his viewers by opting for ambiguity, revealing a glamorous nightclub singer in all her awkwardness, while elevating a tired laundress to near-Classical grandeur. Degas was seen as the leader of a more traditionally skilled faction within the group, and his pictures were sought out by collectors. Critics approvingly pointed out that his work was grounded in a knowledge of the Old Masters and a firm line, qualities they found lacking in some of Degas's peers.A versatile technicianFor much of his long working life, Degas was attracted to the pleasures and difficulties of the artist's materials. His drawings include examples in pen, ink, pencil, chalk, pastel, charcoal, and oil on paper, often in combination with each other, while his paintings were carried out in watercolour, gouache, distemper, metallic pigments, and oils, on surfaces including card, silk, ceramic, tile, and wood panel, as well as widely varied textures of canvas. There was something contradictory about much of this activity: Degas invoked the techniques of the Old Masters while creating anarchic methods of his own. He effectively developed the black-and-white monotype as an independent medium, for example, sometimes with an added layer of pastel or gouache, as in Dancer with a Bouquet Bowing (1877). The results can be exhilarating, notably when the effects of light and texture are subtly expressive of the chosen subject, but he soon tired of the technique. The late 1870s marked the height of Degas's graphic experimentation, after which he moved away from printmaking to concentrate on enriching his use of pastel. Between 1890 and 1892 he briefly returned to monotype, perfecting a new colour procedure in a dazzling series of landscapes, many—like Wheatfield and Green Hill—with pastel embellishments.By the early 1880s the variety of Degas's exhibited art seemed endless, encompassing portraits and theatre scenes, pastels of women at their toilette and of notorious criminals, and series of drawings and prints. During this period Degas began to experiment with making pictures as charcoal drawings on tracing paper and retracing them several times before adding pastel to produce a “family” of related compositions, analogous to the series paintings of Monet. Such sequences were deeply challenging artistic exercises, allowing him to move beyond subject matter and to manipulate the finest nuance of gesture or detail, while seeming to elevate the fundamentals of picture-making—colour, form, and composition—to a newly independent level. For some years Degas had also been quietly exploring the medium of sculpture, using wax and other materials to make modest statuettes of horses and a group of figures that culminated in the tantalizingly lifelike wax sculpture, The Little Dancer Aged 14. Shown at the Impressionist exhibition of 1881, this work carried the possibilities of visual realism to new extremes by incorporating an actual, reduced-scale tutu, ballet slippers, a human hair wig, and a silk ribbon.Final yearsIn 1884 Degas reached the age of 50 and confessed to his friends that he felt some disillusionment about his career. Already known for his abrasiveness toward visitors during working hours, he became notorious for his single-minded dedication to the making of art and for his hostility to journalists and the merely curious. The next decade was one of continuous invention, as he gradually refined his artistic ambitions and shed the preoccupations of his middle years. He abandoned many of the topical themes of the 1870s—the café-concerts, shop scenes, and brothels, for example—and replaced them with a new phase of concentration on the human figure in intimate, if more indistinct, settings. After a controversial sequence of pastels in the 1886 Impressionist exhibition, which showed women bathing and drying themselves indoors and in the open air, Degas produced hundreds of obsessive studies of the nude female form on paper and canvas or in wax and clay. While some of the earlier scenes had been considered voyeuristic and the models identified as prostitutes, these later figures avoid easy classification. The figure in The Morning Bath (c. 1892–95) is almost monumental in the manner of the antique sculpture he admired, while others seem overtly sensual or burdened by their massiveness.The second great subject of Degas's later years was the dancer, now infrequently on stage or in compromising situations, but rather more often waiting in the wings. He hired models to pose in his studio for both his ballet and bathing scenes, often freely improvising his settings or utilizing familiar props. Though they never became abstract in any sense that Degas would have understood, the works of this period moved significantly away from the urban context that had formerly inspired him. His late pictures of dancers are essentially engagements with the human form, at times in rhythmic relationships with each other's bodies, and at times expressing a forceful individual presence. In a large oil painting of around 1900, Dancers at the Barre, for example, Degas created a vital equilibrium between the energy of the two women in a tense composition of verticals and diagonals and of green skirts and orange walls.In such works Degas seemed to be confronting the beginnings of a new art, where documentary description counts for little and the preoccupations with structure and expression of the early 20th century are spelled out. As in his nude studies, his pastels of dancers were sometimes lightly tinted over an energetic charcoal drawing, or were otherwise densely built up in crusty layers of brilliant, unnatural hue. The old dialogue between colour and line continued, but in an emphatically modern idiom. A fascination with varied techniques haunted Degas to the end, resurfacing in dramatic and occasionally bizarre late canvases that involved finger-painting, glazes of contrasting colour, and heavily impastoed surfaces.The audacity of Degas's art during this period was often at odds with the narrowness of his life. In 1890 he took over a large studio on the rue Victor Massé, later moving into an adjoining apartment that was to remain his home until 1912. He never married but was a fiercely loyal friend, counting among his intimates a number of women, including Mary Cassatt. Degas enjoyed society on his own terms, dining out within a trusted circle and regaling families such as Ludovic and Louise Halévy with his trenchant opinions and humorous aphorisms on art, literature, and politics. His letters from these years are typically brief and businesslike, but occasionally allow glimpses of a melancholy, strong-willed personality. Degas relished the company of the young, from small children to the new generation of writers and artists who increasingly sought him out. With the flamboyant artist Paul Gauguin (Gauguin, Paul), for example, he exchanged both ideas and works of art, learning much from the younger man's views on colour while also prompting Gauguin to make experimental prints and boldly drawn figure compositions. Degas himself remained sombre in appearance, wearing a dark suit and top hat on formal occasions and remaining aloof from the mores of bohemianism.Despite many myths about Degas's later years, some encouraged by the artist himself, he did not (until the very end) retreat from the art world, but rather he promoted his work energetically and closely followed the careers of perceived rivals such as Monet and Cézanne. In 1892 he staged a much-noted exhibition of his landscape monotypes at the Durand-Ruel Gallery, partly as a riposte to Monet's gathering fame and the recent success of Pissarro's and Cassatt's own prints. Becoming an avid collector, he also acquired the art of many of his contemporaries, as well as hundreds of drawings and paintings by his lifelong idols, Delacroix and Ingres. And, while he remained loyal to his Montmartre studio when his contemporaries painted abroad or in their country retreats, he also traveled regularly through France, Switzerland, and Italy (his last visit was in 1906, at the age of 72) to visit acquaintances and make occasional landscapes. His world began to narrow at the turn of the 20th century, however, partly because of his reactionary views and violently anti-Semitic response to the Dreyfus Affair (Dreyfus, Alfred), which alienated many of his friends. His declining health also began to preoccupy him; although Degas never went completely blind, a complex of eye troubles obliged him to wear dark glasses outdoors and take frequent rests from work. (His emphasis on the strikingly simplified yet eloquent forms of his final decades was partly linked to his declining sight.)In an unusual move for an artist of his renown, Degas gave up work in old age after being obliged to move from his last studio in 1912. Suffering from reduced sight and hearing, he surrounded himself with pictures he had made and collected, retreating into his memories. His reputation in France and beyond grew steadily, with his work reaching prices of unprecedented heights and beginning to enter major museums. With his cooperation, dealers such as Paul Durand-Ruel and Ambroise Vollard placed pictures from all periods with leading collectors, among them the American Louisine Havemeyer, the Russian Shchukin family, and the German Count Harry Kessler. Degas was idolized by artists of several early 20th-century persuasions—including Suzanne Valadon, Walter Richard Sickert, Maurice Denis, Georges Rouault, Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, and Edward Hopper—who visited his studio or emulated him from afar.It was not until after Degas's death in 1917, however, that the wealth of his output was revealed in a succession of vast public sales in the war-shocked Paris of 1918 and 1919. Thousands of his previously unexhibited works on paper and canvas were sold, and some of the later, less naturalistic examples distressed even his most loyal admirers. Certain aspects of his achievement gained prominence for the first time, principally the wide range of his printmaking. Also surprising was the extent of his collection of pictures by El Greco, Ingres, Delacroix, Manet, Gauguin, and Cézanne. In the early 1920s, when the first series of posthumous bronze casts were unveiled in Europe and the United States, Degas's sculpture provided a further revelation to the art world.AssessmentDegas's greatness is summarized in his ability to explore the language of art—its technical and tactile complexity, its refinement as well as its implicit energy—to a more extreme degree than any of his contemporaries, yet without losing sight of his subject of the human animal in its most public and private moments. He combined a Romantic sensibility with a Classical command of his means, fusing sensuality with unsparing observation and an insistence on visual structure. More than any of the other Impressionists, Degas's art has long been simplified or over-categorized: in reality, the evolution from the gloomy academicism of his youth to the full-blooded social realism of the 1870s, and then to the pyrotechnical, defiant breadth of his last two- and three-dimensional work, is one of the most awe-inspiring of the modern period. In a single lifetime, Degas abandoned the certainties of a state-controlled, historical culture for an art of individual crisis, even approaching the nihilism of the following generation.Degas's reputation has followed an unusual trajectory, rising steeply in his maturity but suffering from the angry retreat of his old age, and from the preference for nonfigurative modes in the new century. Though respected in subsequent decades, he was sidelined by formalist criticism and relegated too often to the role of mere social commentator. The 1960s and '70s saw the beginnings of a major reevaluation of Degas's significance, with specialist publications on his portraits, drawings, prints, monotypes, notebooks, and sculpture, and a growing wave of popular exhibitions. His imagery became a battleground for feminist critics, who centred on the artist's alleged misogyny and the perceived prurience of his brothel and backstage scenes. More recently, the self-consciously elusive quality of much of Degas's depiction has been increasingly acknowledged, as well as his underestimated shift away from topicality in later years. Such debates and discoveries continue to attract vast crowds and to stimulate curators, academics, and practicing artists, suggesting that Degas's full stature has yet to be fully measured.Richard J. KendallAdditional ReadingLife and workThere are two reliable biographies of Degas: Roy McMullen, Degas: His Life, Times, and Work (1984), remains the best in English, although it is otherwise supplanted by Henri Loyrette, Degas (1991), available only in French. The standard edition of the artist's correspondence is Marcel Guérin (ed.), Letters, trans. by Marguerite Kay (1947; trans. from French, new rev. ed., 1945); additional letters appear with a useful collection of essays in Musée d'Orsay and École du Louvre, Degas inédit (1989). Many contemporary accounts exist in French, the most accessible translations being Ambroise Vollard, Degas: An Intimate Portrait, trans. by Randolph T. Weaver (1927, reissued with new illustrations and corrections 1986; originally published in French, 1924); Paul Valéry, Degas, Manet, Morisot, trans. by David Paul (1960, reissued 1989; originally published in French, 1936); and Daniel Halévy, My Friend Degas (1964, reissued 1966; originally published in French, 1960). Translated extracts from these and other memoirs are in Richard Kendall (ed.), Degas by Himself: Drawings, Prints, Paintings, Writings (1987, reissued 1994).The most detailed survey of Degas's art and career is Jean Sutherland Boggs et al., Degas (1988), which has extensive chronologies, a full bibliography, and an exhibition history. The paintings and pastels are catalogued in P.A. Lemoisne, Degas et son oeuvre, 4 vol. (1947–48, reprinted 1984); and in Philippe Brame and Theodore Reff (compilers), Degas et son oeuvre: A Supplement (1984). The artist's three-dimensional production is discussed in John Rewald (ed.), Degas: Works in Sculpture, trans. from French by John Coleman (1944); Denis Rouart, Degas in Search of His Technique (1988; originally published in French, 1945); and Charles W. Millard, The Sculpture of Edgar Degas (1976, reissued 1979). His graphic output is examined in Eugenia Parry Janis, Degas Monotypes: Essay, Catalogue & Checklist (1968); and Sue Welsh Reed and Barbara Stern Shapiro, Edgar Degas: The Painter as Printmaker (1984). Also of interest is Malcolm Daniel, Edgar Degas, Photographer (1998). Other invaluable catalogs are Theodore Reff, The Notebooks of Edgar Degas, newly rev. ed., 2 vol. (1985); Galerie Georges Petit, Degas's Atelier at Auction, 2 vol. (1918–19, reprinted 1989), in French; Ann Dumas et al., The Private Collection of Edgar Degas (1997); and Colta Ives et al. (compilers), The Private Collection of Edgar Degas: A Summary Catalogue (1997).Themes and criticismDegas's subject matter has inspired numerous studies, among them Lillian Browse, Degas Dancers (1949); Jean Sutherland Boggs, Portraits by Degas (1962); George T.M. Shackelford, Degas: The Dancers (1984); Richard Thomson, Degas: The Nudes (1988); Richard Kendall, Degas Landscapes (1993); Jean Sutherland Boggs et al., Degas at the Races (1998); and Richard Kendall, Douglas W. Druick, and Arthur Beale, Degas and the Little Dancer (1998). Critical accounts of Degas's achievement include Theodore Reff, Degas: The Artist's Mind (1976, reprinted 1987); Carol Armstrong, Odd Man Out: Readings of the Work and Reputation of Edgar Degas (1991); Griselda Pollock and Richard Kendall (eds.), Dealing with Degas: Representations of Women and the Politics of Vision (1991); and Christopher Benfy, Degas in New Orleans: Encounters in the Creole World of Kate Chopin and George Washington Cable (1997, reprinted 1999). Degas's late work is the subject of Richard Kendall, Degas: Beyond Impressionism (1996).
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