in the Roman Catholic church, a theory that a general council of the church has greater authority than the pope and may, if necessary, depose him. Conciliarism had its roots in discussions of 12th- and 13th-century canonists who were attempting to set juridical limitations on the power of the papacy. The most radical forms of the conciliar theory in the Middle Ages were found in the 14th-century writings of Marsilius Of Padua, an Italian political philosopher who rejected the divine origin of the papacy, and William of Ockham (Ockham, William of), an English philosopher who taught that only the church as a whole—not an individual pope or even a council—is preserved from error in faith.

      The 15th century saw serious attempts to put the conciliar theories into practice. The Council of Constance (Constance, Council of) (1414–18) invoked the doctrine to depose three claimants to the papal throne; it then elected Pope Martin V as sole legitimate successor to St. Peter, thereby effectively healing the Western (Great) Schism (1378–1417). Though this council is recognized by Rome as the 16th ecumenical council, neither was it convened by a legitimate pope nor were its declarations ever formally approved in their totality; the council's condemnation of John Wycliffe and Jan Hus (pre-Reformation reformers) was approved, but not the decree Sacrosancta espousing conciliarism. The faction-ridden Council of Basel (Basel, Council of), which opened in 1431, reaffirmed Sacrosancta. The theory has continued to live on, and its theses have influenced such doctrines as Gallicanism, a French position that advocated restriction of papal power.

      The first Vatican Council (Vatican Council, First) in 1870 explicitly condemned conciliarism. The second Vatican Council (Vatican Council, Second) (1962–65) asserted that the pope as a member and the head of the college of bishops forms with it at all times an organic unity, especially when the council is gathered in a general council.

* * *

Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Conciliarism — Conciliarism, or the conciliar movement, was a reform movement in the 14th, 15th and 16th century Roman Catholic Church which held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Roman Church as a corporation of Christians, embodied by …   Wikipedia

  • Conciliarism —    The theory that a general council (rather than the pope) is the supreme and ultimate authority in the Christian church. This theory was rooted in the practice of the early church, especially in the role of the ecumenical councils of the fourth …   Historical Dictionary of Renaissance

  • Conciliarism — ♦ The doctrine that the supreme authority in the church is vested in a general or ecumenical council; conciliarism was extremely influential during and after the Great Schism (1378 1414), especially at the Councils of Constance (1414 18), and… …   Medieval glossary

  • conciliarism — noun The doctrine that the highest ecclesiastical authority is a church council (rather than a pope) See Also: conciliarist …   Wiktionary

  • conciliarism — con·cil·i·a·rism …   English syllables

  • conciliarism — / conciliar theory  Конциляризм, соборная теория …   Вестминстерский словарь теологических терминов

  • conciliarism —    This word (from the Latin concilium, meaning council ) refers to a theological position that was prominent in the Middle Ages and Renaissance and holds that supreme authority in the Church is vested in a general council that is able to reform… …   Glossary of theological terms

  • conciliarism — ēəˌrizəm noun ( s) : the theory of church government that places final ecclesiastical authority in representative church councils instead of in a papacy …   Useful english dictionary

  • Roman Catholicism — the faith, practice, and system of government of the Roman Catholic Church. [1815 25] * * * Largest single Christian denomination in the world, with some one billion members, or about 18% of the world s population. The Roman Catholic church has… …   Universalium

  • Ecumenical council — This article is about ecumenical councils in general. For the Roman Catholic councils, see Catholic Ecumenical Councils. For the Salvador Dalí painting, see The Ecumenical Council (painting). Part of a series on Christianity …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”