▪ birdIntroductionany member of the five or six families of storklike (stork) birds (bird): herons (heron) and bitterns (bittern) (Ardeidae), the shoebill (sole species of the Balaenicipitidae), the hammerhead (sole species of the Scopidae), typical storks (stork) and wood storks (Ciconiidae), ibis and spoonbills (spoonbill) (Threskiornithidae), and, according to some authorities, flamingos (flamingo) (Phoenicopteridae). Most are of substantial size, long-legged and long-necked, and adapted for wading. They are widely distributed, often abundant, and apt to be conspicuous in their open habitats or in the air. Many are notably graceful in form and movement, and some have spectacular powers of flight.General featuresSize range and diversity of structureSome storks (stork) are very large, standing over 1.2 metres (4 feet) high and having wingspans up to 2.6 metres (8.5 feet). The larger herons (heron) are about as tall when standing erect. Flamingos are also tall, with great length of neck and legs. Medium-sized species usually stand 60–90 cm (2–3 feet) high, and some of the smaller ones are as little as 30 cm (12 inches) tall. Exceptionally small are the little bitterns (bittern) of the widespread genus Ixobrychus, weighing less than 100 grams (about 4 ounces).With the partial exception of the flamingos (flamingo), the structural characteristics of the order are well marked, and the same is true of the families. The storks, even including the wood storks, form a recognizable group of birds of from medium to large size. The ibis form an even more homogeneous group, birds of medium size with markedly downcurved, slender bills; the spoonbills (spoonbill), of the same family, differ in this respect, as the name implies. The herons are more diverse, with a greater size range, the bitterns standing a little apart in behaviour more than in structure. Each of the remaining two families contains a single species with some peculiar characteristics.Distribution, habitat, and abundanceCiconiiforms are found throughout the world, except in the polar regions, but the largest number of species are found in the warmer parts. Some of those breeding in the North Temperate Zone perform long migrations. The herons are the most cosmopolitan family, some being found even on remote oceanic islands. The shoebill (Balaeniceps rex) has a limited distribution in tropical Africa, and the hammerhead (Scopus umbretta) is almost confined to that continent. The typical storks (subfamily Ciconiinae) are not represented in North America and have only one species in the Australasian region; the wood storks (subfamily Mycteriinae) are represented by one species in the New World and three in the Old World. The ibis are widely distributed but are not found in New Zealand. The flamingos are found throughout the tropics but are not represented in the Australasian region.The usual habitat of ciconiiforms is near water, chiefly fresh, and only a few species, such as the white stork (Ciconia ciconia), live largely on dry ground. The flamingos require brackish or alkaline water, and two species inhabit Andean lakes at elevations of up to about 4,000 metres (13,000 feet).Many of the species in the order are very abundant, with world populations running into millions, and some assemblages, such as those of the lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) in Africa, are enormous. At the other extreme, the Japanese ibis (Nipponia nippon) is on the verge of extinction, only one small colony being known. Several other ibis species are rare and are declining in population.Relations with humansAlthough some freshwater fishing interests may regard herons as undesirable competitors, on the whole the members of this order are considered to be either beneficial or neutral in respect to the economy. They are not sought by humans, and many are protected. At one time a number of species of little egrets were persecuted at their breeding places for the sake of their nuptial plumes—aigrettes (or ospreys)—but such killing has now largely been stopped.The association of the white stork (now an endangered species) with humankind in its preference for nesting on buildings is further mentioned below, but it is not the only species thus involved. Abdim's stork (Sphenorhynchus abdimii), for instance, will nest on native huts in a treeless area. And many of the arboreal colonies of heron and stork species in Africa are in or near villages. The cattle egret's dependence on domestic stock to flush insects, as an alternative to wild herbivores, brings it into a familiar relationship with human beings.Natural historyFeeding habitsMost ciconiiforms subsist wholly or mainly on animal matter, which is usually swallowed whole, indigestible substances being regurgitated later as pellets. Fish are the prey of many species such as the larger herons (heron), but small mammals, birds (bird), reptiles, and amphibians are also taken, as well as invertebrates, including mollusks, crustaceans, insects, and worms. The flamingos (flamingo), on the other hand, live chiefly on minute algae.The methods of fishing are varied. Some of the larger herons stand solitary and motionless until a fish comes within reach and the long neck suddenly shoots out. Certain herons employ a hunting method known as “canopy feeding,” in which one or both wings are held forward, forming a canopy over the head and creating a patch of shaded water. It is thought that fish mistake the shaded area for a safe refuge; another interpretation is that the canopy aids the bird's vision by reducing surface reflections. Other herons go actively in pursuit, stirring up the bottom with their feet or wading rapidly about. The night herons are largely nocturnal in their fishing. Some members of the heron family are not fish eaters. The cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) lives on insects caught when disturbed by the large mammals with which the bird associates.The food of storks (stork) is also varied and may be sought on dry land, in marshy ground, or in shallow water. White storks wintering in Africa take large numbers of locusts when the latter are swarming. Wood storks fish by plowing the water, with mandibles open and partly submerged, as they wade in the shallows. The marabou (Leptoptilos crumeniferus) and other members of the same genus are partly predatory but largely scavengers and carrion eaters, and they may often be seen with vultures (vulture) at a carcass.ibis use their long bills for probing the ground or mud. The spoonbills (spoonbill) catch small organisms by moving their bills, with mandibles slightly open, from side to side in shallow water. The hammerhead often hunts for frogs and will use the back of an almost submerged hippopotamus as a vantage point. The shoebill is a fish eater.Flamingos have a highly specialized method of feeding, which has its closest parallel in certain whales. The inside of the mandibles carries a series of fine hairlike plates that act as filters when water is sucked into the mouth and then expelled. The head is held with the forehead downward. The food particles caught on these plates are ultimately worked on to the tongue and from there are swallowed. There are differences of detail between the species.VocalizationMany of the ciconiiforms are rather silent, making at most various croaking or grunting sounds. Some storks utter scarcely any sounds but often noisily clatter their mandibles. Some herons have loud, harsh cries. Among the ibis the hadada (Hagedashia hagedash) of Africa is exceptional in being noisy—flying about with yelping cries.In spring the males of the large bitterns make an extraordinary booming sound audible at up to 5 km (about 3 miles); for this purpose the esophagus is modified so that it can be inflated and serve as a resonating chamber.MigrationThe relatively few species breeding in northern areas with hard winters are summer visitors there. In some herons there is a tendency to a northerly postbreeding dispersal before the time of true migration southward.The white stork of Europe and northern Asia is a typical long-distance migrant, travelling as far as South Africa and India. The black stork (Ciconia nigra) performs a similar migration, but it is doubtful that visitors to Africa now penetrate beyond the Zambezi River in Mozambique. In South Africa, on the other hand, there is a sparse resident population believed to have been derived, within the twentieth century, from migrants that formerly made a longer journey. There are migrants even among species confined to the tropics; Abdim's stork breeds in the northern tropics of Africa during the rains and migrates across the Equator.Apart from regular movements, recent years have seen a notable range expansion by the cattle egret from Africa and Asia to the Americas and to Australia.BehaviourAn outstanding feature of ciconiiform behaviour is gregariousness. Even where the mode of obtaining food necessitates solitude and therefore dispersal, there is a tendency for reassembly at the end of the day which is followed by a flight in formation to a communal roost. Breeding is mostly colonial. Species able to feed in flocks are gregarious at all times. Some of the assemblies are enormous; for example, over one million lesser flamingos can occur on a single African lake. There may be a seasonal element, as when white storks, dispersed in the breeding season, form flocks for migration.There are some exceptions. Bitterns (bittern) and tiger herons, relying on concealment for protection, are not markedly gregarious, nor is the hammerhead. The shoebill is usually seen singly or in pairs. It is rather silent, partly nocturnal, and has even been credited with a morose disposition.Behaviour related to mating and pair bonding is well marked and has been described in detail for several species, notably of herons. Among these the first signs of breeding may be the assembly of birds on a gathering ground adjacent to the colony and the performance there of various strutting and dancing rituals. A male may then take off on a “circle flight” ending at the site that he has chosen for the future nest. There he may adopt a series of stereotyped display postures, such as the “stretch,” in which he first extends the head and neck vertically and after a moment bends them rearward until the head is almost touching the back. There may also be a “snap” display, in which the head and neck are extended forward and downward, the feathers (feather) of the neck, face, and crest are erected, and the mandibles are brought together with a loud clap. After the male heron has attracted a mate, various mutual displays during building, or at nest relief during incubation, apparently help to maintain the pair bond. Both partners will defend their territory against encroachment by others of their kind, this defense involving various types of threat display.Analogous sexual and hostile display rituals occur in other families of the order but in the main have been less intensively studied than in certain herons. In a well-known greeting ceremony used by various storks, when mates are reunited at the nest after one has been absent, the neck is bent back so that the head rests upside down on the body with the bill pointing toward the tail. Occasional mass aerial maneuvers above the nesting colony are performed by wood storks and others.LocomotionOn land or in shallow water, these birds commonly walk with deliberate gait but make rapid strides when necessary. All except the flamingos ordinarily perch on trees or in a few cases among reeds, most species roosting and nesting there. Bitterns and small herons often climb with agility among reeds or branches. Only the flamingos commonly swim when the water is too deep for wading, although some others immerse themselves to some extent while catching food.The flight of ciconiiforms is strong, on broad wings, with the legs trailing behind. The neck is drawn back in herons, slightly so in the hammerhead; in the shoebill it is fully drawn in with the heavy bill resting on the breast, as in pelicans. In the other families, with the exception of storks of the genus Leptoptilos, the neck is stretched forward. In direct flight, flocks often assume V-formation. The larger storks perform impressive feats of soaring in thermal upcurrents.Reproduction and nestingThe breeding of ciconiiforms tends to be in large, sometimes enormous, colonies, which may comprise a mixture of species. Exceptions are tiger herons, bitterns, the shoebill, and the hammerhead, birds not markedly gregarious at any season.Considering the feeding environment essential for most ciconiiforms, it is remarkable that so many of them should be arboreal nesters. The most common site is in a tree and often at a great height. Exceptions include the bitterns, which nest among reeds; the shoebill, which nests on the ground; and the flamingos, which also nest at ground level, often in shallow water. Among the storks the choice is more varied. Most species nest in tall trees, but some use cliffs or buildings. In parts of Europe, as an alternative to buildings, the white stork often uses artificial platforms erected for its benefit, commonly a cartwheel lying horizontally on top of a high pole, or a similar structure. The site is variable in night herons, ibis, and spoonbills, whose nests may be in trees, in low bushes, among reeds, or even on the ground (ibis and spoonbills), or on cliffs (some species of night herons).The nest itself is usually a loose platform constructed of sticks and stems. Rushes are frequently used in marshy situations. The nest of the hammerhead, placed in a tree and often at no great height, is an enormous structure of sticks and other vegetation, forming a closed chamber sometimes a metre or more in diameter with an entrance tunnel at one side. The cavity is lined with mud or dung. The shoebill, in contrast, does no more than flatten a patch of long grass on dry ground. Flamingos build cones of mud on the lakeshore, 15–35 cm (6–14 inches) high, with a shallow depression scooped out of the top of each. The incubating bird sits on top of this nest, with its long legs folded beneath its body. Sometimes, as on small rocky islands, other materials are used in the absence of mud.As a rule, flamingos lay only a single egg and the shoebill one or two. The usual clutch is three or four in ibis and spoonbills, three to six in storks and the hammerhead, three to seven in herons, and four to six in bitterns. There is a tendency for the eggs to be ovoid (that is, with the ends equally rounded) and to have a white chalky outer layer, underneath which there may be a coloured shell. The colours range from white to pale blue, green, or buff in most groups, to olive brown in the bitterns, and to dark greenish blue in some ibis. The ground colour of ibis eggs may be spotted or blotched with brown, but the eggs of most others are plain. There are faint or scanty markings in a few.The chicks are downy when hatched or quickly become so, but—except for flamingos—they remain in the nest, dependent on their parents for food until full-grown. In the herons there is only one down plumage, but in storks and ibis there are two in succession. The downy young of flamingos are gray, with bills and legs that are red at first but become black within a few days. After the first two or three days, the flamingo chicks leave the nest and move freely about the adjacent part of the colony. As they grow older, they are herded in groups by a few adults, but each apparently continues to be fed by its own parents. The bill acquires its specialized form only as the young flamingo grows. Among some other members of the order, there is a tendency for the bill to be shorter and of a more-generalized type during the early stage of postnatal development.So far as information is available for different species, ciconiiform birds first breed when from two to four years old. Parental care is usually shared between the sexes, both taking part in building the nest, incubating the eggs, and feeding the chicks. Bitterns of the genus Botaurus seem to be exceptional in that only the female incubates the eggs and tends the young. Feeding is usually by regurgitation. In herons, for example, the parent's bill is seized crosswise by the young bird, and the food is passed sideways to its mouth from between the adult's mandibles. In flamingos the regurgitated food is of fluid consistency, and the young must continue to be fed in this way until their own filtering apparatus is adequately developed at the age of some two months.Form and functionGeneral characteristicsThe carriage of the body is markedly upright in many species but more horizontal in others. Length of neck and length of legs tend to be correlated, but the chestnut-bellied heron (Agamia agami) of tropical America combines short legs with a long neck. In herons particularly, the neck is curled back on itself at rest but can be instantly straightened on alert or to seize prey.Long legs and toes are often an adaptation for wading. The toes of herons are long and flexible, with just a hint of webbing for walking or standing on soft ground, the functional hind toe aiding in perching. The hind toe of storks (stork) and ibis is reduced and elevated, an adaptation for more walking and less perching. The relatively short front toes of flamingos (flamingo) are completely webbed and the hind toe small or absent; these birds (bird) walk extensively on soft bottom mud. In the herons, and also in the hammerhead, the claw on the middle toes is serrated (pectinate) on its inner border, an aid to preening.Bill (beak) shapeThe bill shows various adaptations to methods of feeding. In herons it is typically long, straight, and pointed; although spearlike in appearance, it is used for grasping rather than impaling. In the boat-billed heron (Cochlearius cochlearius) the bill is flattened into a broad scoop and is used as such in feeding. In bitterns, both mandibles are finely serrated near the tip. The bill of the hammerhead is relatively short and slightly hooked. The shoebill has a large head with a heavy, bulging, hooked bill; this may be an adaptation to digging lungfish out of the mud, but it is used also for catching other fish.In storks the bill is usually long and strong, as in herons, but not always straight; it may be decurved as in the wood storks or slightly upturned as in the jabiru (Jabiru mycteria) of tropical America. In the two openbills of the genus Anastomus, when the mandibles are closed, a wide gap remains between their outer portions, except at the tips, probably in adaptation to holding large water snails. The ibis have long, thin, and markedly decurved bills, and in the spoonbills (spoonbill) the tip of the long straight bill is flattened and broadened, thus forming a thin spatula. In the flamingos the bill is bent downward in the middle of its length and has the filtering mechanism already described.Among the herons, plumages (plumage) in patterns of blues, grays, and white are common; some—e.g., various egrets (egret)—are all white. In storks, contrasting areas of black and white are characteristic. Some of the ibis are notable for the metallic sheen on the feathers (feather). The hammerhead is of a sombre brown hue. The large bitterns (bittern) and the tiger herons have cryptic coloration, which is associated with their habit of standing motionless among the reeds with their bills pointing toward the sky.Touches of bright red on the plumage or on bare parts are not infrequent. A few species have brightly coloured plumage, such as the scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber) and the roseate spoonbill (Ajaia ajaja), both of tropical America, and, in varying degree, the flamingos.The sexes are usually alike in plumage or nearly so, exceptions being the little bitterns. The immature may be like the adult or quite different; in the scarlet ibis the plumage is dull brown. Some herons have, in both sexes, long plumes descending from the head, neck, breast, or back, in most only during the breeding season. Some species (that is, certain ibis, the boat-billed heron, and many typical herons) have crests on the crown or nape. The hammerhead gets its name because the bill appears balanced by an erectile tuft of feathers projecting backward. Patches (two or more pairs) of powder down feathers are especially characteristic of the herons. These feathers break down to produce a fine powder, which is distributed to the plumage with the bill in preening.The head and neck are partly or wholly bare of feathers in some species, and the exposed skin may be black, as in the sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopica), or brightly coloured red, as in the hermit ibis (Geronticus eremita) and others. In the marabou the head and neck are almost naked, and from the front of the neck extends a distensible pouch of pink skin.Seasonal change in plumage is seen mainly in the shedding of the ornamental breeding plumes of some herons, but there are some changes in the colour of the bill, irises of the eyes, legs, and bare patches of skin during the season of sexual display. At this time the colours become brighter, with a common tendency toward red, and there may even be an intensification of the hue in moments of excitement.Another characteristic of the herons, notably the egrets, is a tendency to dimorphism, resulting in a population containing both white and slate-blue individuals.Evolution and paleontologyThe Ciconiiformes are generally accepted as being an ancient group. Most but not all ornithologists accept that the order evolved through a single phyletic line—apart from the equivocal position of the flamingos (Phoenicopterus) and with possible reservations about shoebills (Balaeniceps). The two main branches of the Ciconiiformes produced both the herons (heron) and the storks (stork), with the remaining forms probably nearer the latter.In the fossil record the earliest heron and ibis date from 60 to 54 million years ago during the late Paleocene and early Eocene epochs.The flamingos and their extinct allies have a long record, beginning with Scaniornis from the early Paleocene Epoch (some 65 million years ago) in Sweden. The first true flamingo (Elornis) is from the late Eocene Epoch of England.ClassificationDistinguishing taxonomic featuresThe members of the order possess in common, but not exclusively, a number of anatomical characters that are considered to be conservative (that is, evolving only slowly), indicative of kinship in descent rather than convergent evolution. These features include the arrangement of the palatine bones, the presence of diastataxy (that is, the wing apparently lacks a secondary feather associated with the fifth secondary covert, which is present), the presence of intestinal ceca (blind pouches), nearly always minute, the possession of 16–20 cervical (neck) vertebrae, and the presence of only a single pair of sternotracheal muscles in the syrinx (voicebox).Annotated classificationOrder CiconiiformesLoose-plumaged wading birds of moderate to large size, most with slim body and long neck; bill usually long, straight, and sharp; legs medium to long, lower tibiae bare; partial web between outer and middle (sometimes also between middle and inner) toes, and hind toes at same level as front toes; claw on middle toe pectinate (that is, with comblike inner edge). Many with ornamental plumes in breeding season. Adult length 28–142 cm (11–56 inches). About 17 genera, approximately 60 species. Worldwide, except in polar regions.Family Balaenicipitidae ( shoebill or whale-headed stork)A large wading bird, stoutly built, with moderately long neck and short tail. Bill large, broad, and flattened, with hooked tip on upper mandible. Legs long, hind toe on same level as others, claw on middle toe slightly pectinate. Plumage sombre; short bushy crest. Length 117 cm (46 inches). 1 species, confined to tropical east-central Africa.Family Scopidae ( hammerhead, or hamerkop)A moderate-size bird with large head, short neck, rather long wings, and moderate length tail. Bill medium length and laterally compressed, straight, and slightly hooked at the tip. Legs long; toes slender, with partial web connecting front three; hind toe at same level. Plumage brown, substantial crest projecting horizontally from back of head. Length 50 cm (20 inches). 1 species. Africa, southwestern Asia, Madagascar.Family Ciconiidae (storks (stork))Medium to large wading or walking birds, stoutly built, with long necks. Bill long and massive, straight or curved up or down (or with gap between closed mandibles); legs long, with partial web between middle and outer toes, hind toe smaller and raised. Plumage often boldly patterned in black and white; parts or whole of head bare in some species. Length 76–152 cm (30–60 inches); 6 genera, about 20 species, divided into 2 subfamilies. Ciconiinae (typical storks) and Mycteriinae (wood storks). Worldwide in warm regions, but most species occur in the Old World.Medium to large wading or walking birds with long neck and short tail; bill long, slender, curved downward (ibis), or straight and spatulate at the tip (spoonbills). Legs long; front toes slightly webbed at base, hind toe small and elevated. Many with crests; some ibis with whole or part of head and neck bare. Length 48–107 cm (19–42 inches). 14 genera, about 33 species. Virtually worldwide in tropics and subtropics; a few species in temperate regions.Family Phoenicopteridae (flamingos (flamingo))Very tall wading (and swimming) birds, with slender bodies, long thin necks, large wings, and short tails. Bill stout, bent sharply down at midpoint, and furnished with lamellar filtering apparatus. Legs very long; front toes relatively short and fully webbed, hind toe small or absent. Plumage mainly white, tinged pink, or light vermilion; face bare. Length 91–122 cm (36–48 inches). 2 or 3 genera, 5 species; shallow lakes and lagoons in tropics; worldwide except Australasia.Critical appraisalThere is little controversy about the limits of the order Ciconiiformes apart from the question of whether the flamingos should be given separate ordinal rank (Phoenicopteriformes). The traditional debate has been whether flamingos are closer to the anseriforms (anseriform) than to the ciconiiforms. Recent DNA studies suggest that the flamingos may be related unexpectedly to such unlikely forms as the grebes (grebe) (Podicipediformes).There is also little debate about the division of families and genera, except that some place the boat-billed heron (Cochlearius) in its own family, Cochleariidae. Skeletal and DNA analyses point to four natural groups of herons often defined as subfamilies: the day herons (Ardeinae), night herons (Nycticoracinae, which also includes the boat-billed heron, Cochlearius), tiger herons (Tigrisomatinae), and bitterns (bittern) (Botaurinae, which includes the zigzag heron, Zebrilus).The most vigorous debate within the order involves the genus Balaeniceps, which was at one time placed in the order Pelecaniformes (pelecaniform). Although much osteological evidence continues to support its close relationship to the pelecaniforms, some authorities attribute the resemblances to convergent evolution. Also still unresolved is the possibility that New World vultures (vulture) (Cathartidae) are indeed storks (stork) rather than diurnal raptors (raptor) of the order Falconiformes (falconiform).Sir A. Landsborough ThomsonAdditional ReadingJames Hancock and James Kushlan, The Herons Handbook (1984), covers all aspects of the species. Walter J. Bock, “A Generic Review of the Family Ardeidae (Aves),” American Museum Novitates, no. 1779 (1956), discusses the taxonomy of the herons. Frank A. Lowe, The Heron (1954), gives the natural history of the European grey heron (Ardea cinerea). Andrew J. Meyerriecks, Comparative Breeding Behavior of Four Species of North American Herons (1960), provides a valuable contribution to the knowledge of behaviour in the group. R.P. Allen, The Flamingos: Their Life History and Survival (1956), surveys the family. Leslie Brown, The Mystery of the Flamingos, new and expanded ed. (1973), delineates the natural history of the East African species.Sir A. Landsborough Thomson Ed.
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