- Chandra Gupta
▪ emperor of Indiaalso called Chandra Gupta Maurya or Maurya(reigned c. 321–c. 297 BCE), founder of the Mauryan dynasty (Mauryan empire) and the first emperor to unify most of India under one administration. Credited with saving the country from maladministration and freeing it from foreign domination, he fasted to death in sorrow for his famine-stricken people.Chandra Gupta was born into a family left destitute by the death of his father, chief of the migrant Mauryas, in a border fray. His maternal uncles left him with a cowherd who brought him up as his own son. Later he was sold to a hunter to tend cattle. Purchased by a Brahman politician, Kautilya (also called Chanakya), he was taken to Taxila (now in Pakistan), where he received an education in military tactics and the aesthetic arts. Tradition states that while he slept, following a meeting with Alexander the Great, a lion began licking his body, gently waking him and prompting in him hopes of royal dignity. Upon Kautilya's advice, he collected mercenary soldiers, secured public support, and ended the autocracy of the Nanda dynasty in a bloody battle against forces led by their commander in chief, Bhaddasala.Ascending the throne of the Magadha kingdom, in modern Bihar, about 325 BCE, Chandra Gupta destroyed the sources of Nanda power and eliminated opponents through well-planned administrative schemes that included an effective secret service. When Alexander died in 323, his last two representatives in India returned home, leaving Chandra Gupta to win the Punjab about 322. The following year, as emperor of Magadha and ruler of the Punjab, he began the Mauryan dynasty. Expanding his empire to the borders of Persia, in 305 he defeated an invasion by Seleucus I Nicator, a Greek contender for control of Alexander's Asian empire. Chandra Gupta then extended his empire beyond the barriers of the Vindhya Range to the south, subduing the whole of India with an army of 600,000 men.Ranging from the Himalayas and the Kabul valley (in modern Afghanistan) to the southern tip of India, Chandra Gupta's Indian empire was one of history's most extensive. Its continuation for at least two generations is attributable in part to his establishment of an excellent administration patterned after that of the Persian Achaemenid Dynasty (559–330 BCE) and after Kautilya's text on politics, Artha-shastra (“The Science of Material Gain”).Traditionally, Chandra Gupta was influenced to accept Jainism by the sage Bhadrabahu I, who predicted the onset of a 12-year famine. When the famine came, Chandra Gupta made efforts to counter it, but, dejected by the tragic conditions prevailing, he left to spend his last days in the service of Bhadrabahu at Shravana Belgola, a famous religious site in southwest India, where Chandra Gupta fasted to death.
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