California Indian

California Indian

 member of any of the Native American peoples who have traditionally resided in the area roughly corresponding to the present states of California (U.S.) and northern Baja California (Mex.).

      The peoples living in the California culture area at the time of first European contact in the 16th century were only generally circumscribed by the present state boundaries. Some were culturally intimate with peoples from neighbouring areas; for instance, California groups living in the Colorado River valley, such as the Mojave and Quechan (Yuma), shared traditions with the Southwest Indians (Southwest Indian), while those of the Sierra Nevada, such as the Washoe, shared traditions with the Great Basin Indians (Great Basin Indian), and many northern California groups shared traditions with the Northwest Coast Indians (Northwest Coast Indian).

      A mosaic of microenvironments—including seacoasts, tidewaters, rivers, lakes, redwood forests, valleys, deserts, and mountains—provided ample sustenance for its many residents and made California one of the most densely populated culture areas of Northern America. The indigenous peoples of this region were considerably more politically stable, sedentary, and conservative and less in conflict with one another than was generally the case in other parts of North America; within the culture area neighbouring groups often developed elaborate systems for the exchange of goods and services. In general, the California tribes reached levels of cultural and material complexity rarely seen among hunting and gathering cultures (hunting and gathering culture).

Traditional culture patterns

Regional and territorial organization
      The California culture area was occupied by a large number of tribes, each of which had distinct linguistic, social (social structure), and cultural traditions. Except for the Colorado River peoples (Mojave and Quechan) and perhaps some Chumash groups, California peoples avoided centralized governmental structures at the tribal level; instead, each tribe consisted of several independent geopolitical units, or tribelets. These were tightly organized polities that nonetheless recognized cultural connections to the other polities within the tribe; they were perhaps most analogous to the many independent bands of Sioux. Tribelets generally ranged in size from about a hundred to a few thousand people, depending on the richness of locally available resources; tribelet territories ranged in size from about 50 to 1,000 square miles (130 to 2,600 square km). See also Sidebar: The Difference Between a Tribe and a Band.

      Within some tribelets all the people lived in one principal village, from which some of them ranged for short periods of time to collect food, hunt, or visit other tribelets for ritual or economic purposes. In other tribelets there was a principal village to which people living in smaller settlements traveled for ritual, social, economic, and political occasions. A third variation involved two or more large villages, each with various satellite settlements; in such systems, a designated “capital” village would be the residence of the principal chief as well as the setting for major rituals and political and economic negotiations.

Settlement patterns
      In most of California the tribelets established permanent villages that they occupied all year, although small groups routinely left for periods of a few days or weeks to hunt or collect food. In areas with sparse economic (economic systems) resources, people often lived in seminomadic bands of 20 to 30 individuals, gathering together in larger groups only temporarily for such activities as antelope drives and piñon-nut harvests. As a rule, riverine and coastal peoples enjoyed a more settled life than those living in the desert and foothills.

      Traditional house types varied from permanent, carefully constructed homes occupied for generations to the most temporary types of structures. Dwellings could be wood-framed (northern California), earth-covered (various areas), semisubterranean (Sacramento area), or made of brush (desert areas) or thatched palm (southern California). Communal and ceremonial buildings were found throughout the region and were often large enough to hold the several hundred people who could be expected to attend rituals or festivals. Houses ranged in size from five or six feet (almost two metres) in diameter to apartment-style buildings in which several families lived together in adjoining units. Sweat lodges were also common; these earth-covered permanent structures were used by most California tribes (the Colorado River groups and the northern Paiute, on the margins of California, were exceptions), with sweating a daily activity for most men.

Production and technology
 Traditional subsistence in native California centred on hunting (hunting and gathering culture), fishing, and collecting wild plant foods. Typically, men hunted and fished while women and children collected plant foods and small game. Hunting and fishing equipment such as bows and arrows, throwing sticks, fishing gear, snares, and traps were made by men; women made nets, baskets, and other gathering implements as well as clothing, pots, and cooking utensils.

      Food resources varied across the landscape. Shellfish, deep-sea fish, surf fish, acorns, and game were the main subsistence staples for coastal peoples. Groups living in the foothills and valleys relied on acorns, the shoots and seeds of weedy plants and tule (a type of reed), game, fish, and waterfowl. Desert-dwellers sought piñon nuts, mesquite fruit, and game (especially antelope and rabbit) and engaged in some agriculture.

      Native Californians developed a variety of specialized technological devices to help them maximize the productivity of the region's diverse environments. The Chumash of southern coastal California made seaworthy plank canoes from which they hunted large sea mammals. Peoples living on bays and lakes used tule rafts, while riverine groups had flat-bottom dugouts made by hollowing out large logs. Traditional food-preservation techniques included drying, hermetic sealing, and the leaching of those foods, notably acorns, that were high in acid content. Milling and grinding equipment was also common.

Property and exchange systems
      Traditional concepts of property (real and personal property) tended to vary in degree rather than kind in native California. In general, larger groups such as clans and villages owned the land and protected it against infringement from other groups. Individuals, lineages, and extended families usually did not own land but instead exercised exclusive use rights (usufruct) to certain food-collecting, fishing, and hunting areas within the communal territory. Areas where resources such as medicinal plants or obsidian, a form of volcanic glass used to make very sharp tools, were unevenly distributed over the landscape might be owned by either groups or individuals. Particular articles could be acquired by manufacture, inheritance, purchase, or gift.

      Goods and foodstuffs were distributed (primitive culture) through reciprocal exchange between kin and through large trading fairs, which were often ritualized. Both operated similarly in that they served as a redistribution and banking system for easily spoiled food; a group with surplus edibles would exchange them for durable goods (such as shells) that could be used in the future to acquire fresh food in return.

      Most California groups included professional traders who traveled long distances among the many tribes; goods from as far away as Arizona and New Mexico could be found among California's coastal peoples. Generally, shells from the coastal areas were valued and exchanged for products of the inland areas, such as obsidian. Medicines, manufactured goods such as baskets, and other objects were also common items of exchange.

Leadership and social status
      For those groups that engaged in centralized forms of organization, the role of chief, or tribelet leader, was generally an inherited position. In some groups, such as the Pomo, women were eligible for chiefly office. Typically the chief was an economic administrator whose work ranged from general admonitions to specific directions for particular tasks, such as indicating where food was available and how many people it would require to collect it. Such leaders redistributed the economic resources of the community and, through donations from its members, maintained resources from which emergency needs could be met. Within their communities, chiefs were the major decision makers and the final authority, although they typically worked with the aid of a council of elders, heads of extended families, ritualists, assistant chiefs, and shamans. In some areas the chief functioned as a priest, maintaining the ceremonial house and ritual objects. The chief was generally a conspicuous person, being wealthier than the average individual, more elaborately dressed, and often displaying symbols of office. Chiefs' families formed a superstratum of the community elites, especially among those tribelets that organized themselves through lineages (lineage).

 As chiefs led in the political sphere of traditional native California life, shamans (shamanism) led in the sphere in which spiritual and physical health intertwined. The vocation of shaman was open to women and men. Shamans enjoyed a status somewhat similar to that of chief. They served as physical and mental healers, diviners, advisers, artists, and poets. Among other duties, they defined and described the world of the sacred and regulated the fortune of souls before and after death, mediating between the mundane and sacred worlds. Most tribelets in California had one or more shamans, who were active in political life, working with other leaders and placing their powers at the disposal of the community. See also shamanism.

      Alongside chiefs and shamans were ritualists—dancers, singers, fire tenders, and others—who were carefully trained in their crafts and who functioned intimately within the political, economic, and religious spheres of their communities. These men and women acquired considerable respect and often wealth because of their skills. In effect, they were members of the power elite. When performing, ritualists were usually costumed in headdresses, dance skirts, wands, jewelry, and other regalia.

      Native California's traditional religious institutions were intensely and intimately associated with its political, economic, social, and legal systems. Frequently the priests, shamans, and ritualists in a community organized themselves around one of two religious systems: the Kuksu in the north and the Toloache in the south. Both involved the formal indoctrination of initiates and—potentially, depending upon the individual—a series of subsequent status promotions within the religious society; these processes could literally occupy initiates, members, and mentors throughout their lifetimes. Members of these religious societies exercised considerable economic, political, and social influence in the community.

      In the Kuksu religion (common among the Pomo, Yuki, Maidu, and Wintun), colourful and dramatic costumes and equipment were used during ritual impersonations of specific spirit-beings. Within the Toloache religion (as among the Luiseño and Diegueño), initiates performed while drinking a hallucinogenic decoction made of the jimsonweed plant (Datura meteloides); the drug put them in a trance and provided them with supernatural knowledge about their future lives and roles as members of the sacred societies.

      Religions on the Colorado River differed slightly because they were not concerned with developing formal organizations and recruitment procedures. Individuals received religious information through dreams, and members recited long narrative texts, explaining the creation of the world, the travel of culture heroes, and the adventures of historic figures.

      In the northwestern part of the culture area, there was another type of informally structured religious system. Its rituals concerned world renewal (as in the white-deerskin dance) and involved the recitation of myths that were privately owned—that is, for which the prerogative of recitation belonged to only a few individuals. One communal need served by these ceremonies was the reification (or, sometimes, restructuring) of relationships. The display of costumes and valuable possessions (such as white deerskins or delicately chipped obsidian blades) reaffirmed social ranking, and the success of the ritual reaffirmed the orderly relationship of humanity to the supernatural.

      The use of supernatural power to control events or transform reality was basic to every California group. Generally magic was used in attempts to control the weather, increase the harvest of crops, and foretell the future. Magic or sorcery was deemed not only the cause of sickness and death but also the principal means of curing many diseases (see soul loss). Its practices were also considered to be ways to protect oneself, to punish wrongdoers, and to satisfy personal ends.

marriage and child rearing
      Because of its implications for long-term economic and social bonds and obligations, marriage was almost always a matter arranged by the families of the prospective bride and groom. Generally, the families exchanged goods at the time of the marriage, with the bulk of goods coming from the husband's family. In most cases the wife took up residence with the husband's family and was taught the ways of the group by her mother-in-law.

      Adults of childbearing age were generally responsible for providing food for the group; the generation senior to them—their parents, aunts, and uncles—were typically responsible for raising the children of the community. Learning was a continuous process in which older persons instructed children through elaborate tales containing lessons concerning behaviour and values. Constant supervision, provided by adults, older siblings, and other relatives, reminded younger children about how things should be done.

      The educational process became more intense and dramatic during rites of passage (rite of passage), when individuals attained new status and responsibility. The female puberty ritual, for example, generally included a time of isolation, because girls were considered especially empowered (and therefore potentially dangerous on a spiritual level) at menarche. Depending on the tribe, this ritual varied in length from several days to several weeks; during this time an older woman would care for the girl and instruct her in her role as an adult. Initiation ceremonies for boys were less common and, when carried out, were usually less formal, involving instruction in male occupations and behaviour and predictions regarding the boy's future religious, economic, or political career.

      Adult education could be heavily institutionalized. Young Chumash men, for instance, purchased apprenticeships from guildlike associations of professional artisans. Young Pomo men were also charged a fee to be trained as apprentices by recognized professional craftsmen, albeit without the intervention of a craft association.

      Leaders and specialists continued their training on a less-formal level throughout their lifetimes. A person destined to become chief received instruction from others (such as elders, ritualists, and shamans) and continued to receive such counsel after assumption of office.

      Oral literature—and especially a variety of elaborate creation tales and epic poems—was the art form for which native Californians were most renowned. There were also songs that recounted tales of victory, recent events, daily activities, and romantic love. Songs were usually short but could, in narrative form, last for days. Singing was accompanied by rattles, whistles, or drums.

 Visual art forms ranged from decoration on items of daily use, such as baskets and tools, to elaborate rock paintings and rock engravings. Rock paintings were widespread, and, in various parts of the region, designs were incised or pecked into rock surfaces as well. Rock art served a range of functions, from recording individual and group rituals to marking trails.

 California peoples were renowned for their exquisite basketwork, though pottery in the eastern desert was also handsomely shaped and decorated. Costuming, particularly in relation to the Kuksu religion, involved the creation of elaborate headdresses, skirts, feathered garments, and other regalia, which were often symbolic of supernatural beings. Body painting was also popular.

Cultural continuity and change
      California was colonized by the Spanish beginning in 1769, when Junípero Serra (Serra, Junípero, Blessed) and his successors began to build a series of missions along the region's southern Pacific Coast. Accompanied by soldiers and soon followed by ranchers and other colonial developers, these missionaries upon their arrival initiated a long period of cultural rupture for most of California's indigenous peoples. Native communities were often forcibly dislocated to missions, where they were made to work for the colonizers and to convert to Christianity. In less than a century the rest of California had been colonized: in 1812 Russian fur traders founded an outpost at Fort Ross (about 90 miles [140 km] north of present-day San Francisco), and the gold rush that began in 1848 drew some 250,000 Euro-Americans to the California interior over the next five years. Together, these and other events caused the native population to collapse to such an extent—from a precontact high of perhaps 275,000 to perhaps 15,000 in the closing decades of the 19th century—that some have described the period as genocidal. See also Native American: History (Native American).

      After a period of intense oversight during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the U.S. government terminated most of its federal obligations to native Californians in 1955; indigenous rancherías, or reservations (reservation), have become relatively autonomous in the period since. Each ranchería has an elected body of officials, usually known as a business committee or tribal council, which acts as a liaison between the tribal community and such outside interests as the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs, business corporations desiring the purchase or lease of reservation lands, public utilities seeking rights-of-way across lands, and other entities having some form of business with the group. Typically, the council also hears intratribal grievances and participates in planning economic and social development programs.

      By the early 21st century, many California Indians were not readily distinguishable from other people residing in California in terms of external factors such as clothing, housing, transportation, or education. However, indigenous attitudes, rituals, and other aspects of traditional culture remained vibrant throughout the state. Many native Californians choose to live in rural areas and reside on reservations; others choose to live in urban or suburban areas; and still others live part of the year on a reservation and spend the rest of the year in a city or suburb.

      Throughout California one finds indigenous ceremonial structures, the continued use and manufacture of ritual materials, and the use of traditional foods. Many art forms, especially basket weaving, continue to be passed from one generation to another, and many native languages, though spoken less and less as first languages, are maintained as part of an overall interest in indigenous heritage. Some rancherías have cultural centres and museums that help to preserve their cultures and languages, and in some school districts classes in native languages and cultures are being offered to both children and adults.

      Traditional culture is less obvious in the major population centres of the state, which now range along the coast and the Central Valley from San Francisco and Oakland south to San Diego. Native culture has not ceased in urban areas but rather has become an important part of a larger tapestry of urban cultural diversity. Growing at a faster rate than the general population, California's indigenous population is the highest in the United States; early 21st-century estimates indicated some 630,000 individuals of indigenous descent residing there. Two California cities are among the 10 U.S. cities with the largest resident populations of Native North Americans—Los Angeles (2nd) and San Diego (9th).

      Not all Native Americans living in California are California Indians, and the growth of this population is a relatively recent phenomenon. People from throughout North America, including indigenous individuals, gravitated to the state in large numbers during World War II in order to work in the burgeoning defense industries of that era. A second wave of native migration to California occurred in the 1950s, during an aggressive indigenous relocation program carried out by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. However well-intended, the Bureau of Indian Affairs' coordination of the relocation plan—which had been designed to move native individuals and families from job-poor reservations to employment-rich urban areas—was often ineptly carried out and frequently abandoned families once they had relocated. As predominantly rural people finding themselves in unfamiliar urban areas with little of the interfamilial social and economic support to which they were accustomed, many newly urban Native Americans sought each other out and developed independent service and support organizations in the cities.

      As a result of these migrations, the unique cultural patterns of the many tribes now represented in California are apparent throughout the state, and there is also a strong pantribal ethos that has fostered city- and statewide recreational, educational, and political groups. For instance, in 1964 a group of Native Americans occupied Alcatraz Island, citing an 1868 treaty allowing them to claim any “unoccupied government land.” Although the protestors occupied Alcatraz only for a period of hours, their concerns were later pursued by others: in 1969 a group of approximately 100 individuals calling themselves “Indians of all Tribes” occupied Alcatraz again, this time staying until 1971. The purposes of the occupations were to publicize Indian demands for self-determination, to force negotiations for a Native American cultural centre, museum, and university, and to gain (or, in the occupiers' view, to regain) legal title to the island. In the early 21st century, California's Native American coalitions were continuing to merge political and educational activism and, with organizations such as the American Indian Historical Society and the California Indian Education Association, are assertively examining, criticizing, and providing new teaching materials for schoolteachers who work with indigenous children and for the state curriculum as it regards Native American life and culture. See also Native American: Developments in the late 20th and early 21st centuries (Native American).

Lowell John Bean Elizabeth Prine Pauls

Additional Reading
Classic syntheses of the traditional cultures of the California Indians include A.L. Kroeber, Handbook of the Indians of California (1925, reprinted 1975); Robert F. Heizer and M.A. Whipple (compilers and eds.), The California Indians: A Source Book, 2nd ed., rev. and enlarged (1971); Lowell John Bean and Thomas C. Blackburn (eds.), Native Californians: A Theoretical Retrospective (1976); William C. Sturtevant (ed.), Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 8, California, ed. by Robert F. Heizer (1978); Robert F. Heizer and Albert B. Elsasser, The Natural World of the California Indians (1980); and Jack D. Forbes, Native Americans of California and Nevada, rev. ed. (1982).Descriptions of particular cultures include Raymond C. White, Luiseño Social Organization (1963, reissued 1971); Lowell John Bean, Mukat's People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California (1972); and Virginia P. Miller, Ukomnóm: The Yuki Indians of Northern California (1979). Very readable books for the nonspecialist are Theodora Kroeber, Ishi in Two Worlds (1961, reissued 1976); and Theodora Kroeber and Robert F. Heizer, Almost Ancestors: The First Californians (1968).Histories of Native California that illuminate issues of colonial conquest and indigenous identity include Robert F. Heizer and Alan F. Almquist, The Other Californians: Prejudice and Discrimination Under Spain, Mexico, and the United States to 1920 (1971); George Harwood Phillips, Chiefs and Challengers: Indian Resistance and Cooperation in Southern California (1975); Sherburne F. Cook, The Population of the California Indians, 1769–1970 (1976); Albert L. Hurtado, Indian Survival on the California Frontier (1988); Clifford E. Trafzer and Joel R. Hyer (eds.), Exterminate Them: Written Accounts of the Murder, Rape, and Slavery of Native Americans During the California Gold Rush, 1848–1868 (1999); Joel R. Hyer, We Are Not Savages: Native Americans in Southern California and the Pala Reservation, 1840–1920 (2001); Stephen W. Silliman, Lost Laborers in Colonial California: Native Americans and the Archaeology of Rancho Petaluma (2004); George Harwood Phillips, Bringing Them Under Subjection: California's Tejón Indian Reservation and Beyond, 1852–1864 (2004); James A. Sandos, Converting California: Indians and Franciscans in the Missions (2004); Kent G. Lightfoot, Indians, Missionaries, and Merchants: The Legacy of Colonial Encounters on the California Frontiers (2005); and Barbara L. Voss, The Archaeology of Ethnogenesis: Race and Sexuality in Colonial San Francisco (2008).Native California life in the 20th and 21st centuries is discussed in Thomas Buckley, Standing Ground: Yurok Indian Spirituality, 1850–1990 (2002); and Susan Lobo et al. (eds.), Urban Voices: The Bay Area American Indian Community (2002).

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