▪ Spanish-Latin American history
Spanish  caciquismo (“bossism”) 

      in Latin-American and Spanish politics, the rule of local chiefs or bosses (caciques). As a class, these leaders have often played a key role in their countries' political structure.

      The word cacique is of Indian origin but was adopted by the Spanish conquistadores and used to describe heads of Indian tribes or, in the more developed Indian states, governors of districts. The Spaniards retained caciques as hereditary chiefs in the Indian communities to serve as minor judges, to apportion labour, and exact tribute. Bosses of forced labour gangs were called caciques in colonial Mexico and curacas in Peru. The term was later adopted in Spain, where its connotation of political bossism was even stronger.

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