- Caballero, Fernán
▪ Spanish writerborn December 24, 1796, Morges, Switzerlanddied April 7, 1877, Sevilla, SpainSpanish writer whose novels and stories depict the language, customs, and folklore of rural Andalusia.Her father was Johann Niklaus Böhl von Faber, a German businessman who converted to Roman Catholicism and became a well-known critic of Spanish literature. He moved the family in 1813 to Andalusia, which was the native region of his wife. In 1816 their daughter Cecilia married Antonio Planells, a Spanish infantry officer who was killed in action the following year. In 1822 the young widow married the marqués de Arco Hermoso, in whose homes in Sevilla (Seville) and the Andalusian countryside she collected much of the material for her books. Upon his death in 1835 Cecilia found herself in straitened circumstances, and in 1837 she married a much younger man, Antonio de Ayala, whose unfortunate business speculations eventually drove him to suicide in 1859.Poverty helped persuade Cecilia to publish her writings. Her first and best-known novel, La gaviota (1849; The Seagull), was an immediate success with the public. No other Spanish book of the 19th century obtained such instant and universal recognition. It describes the career of a fisherman's daughter who marries a German physician, deserts her husband to become an opera singer, falls in love with a bullfighter, and eventually returns home, widowed and with her voice gone, to wed a village barber. La gaviota is marred by its obtrusive morality and slow pace, but its lively, sympathetic presentations of country people and their conversation are utterly convincing. The book is considered a precursor of the 19th-century Spanish realistic novel. It is also the first outstanding example of a novel influenced by costumbrismo, the literary movement that depicted in short prose sketches the rapidly changing customs of rural Spain, almost always with a somewhat nostalgic attitude.After the success of La gaviota, Caballero wrote many more works of fiction, including the novel Clemencia (1852) and the short-story collection Cuadros de costumbres populares andaluces (1852; “Sketches of Everyday Andalusian Life”). She died after a long period of ill health, thrice-widowed and childless. She was famous for her defense of the traditional virtues of Spain—Roman Catholic, monarchist, and rural—against the upsurge of 19th-century liberalism.
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