- Borglum, Gutzon
▪ American sculptorin full John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglumborn March 25, 1867, St. Charles, Bear Lake, Idaho, U.S.died March 6, 1941, Chicago, IllinoisAmerican sculptor, who is best known for his colossal sculpture of the faces of four U.S. presidents on Mount Rushmore in South Dakota.The son of Danish immigrants, Borglum was raised from age seven in Nebraska. He studied art in San Francisco and then, from 1890 to 1893, in Paris at the Académie Julian and the École des Beaux-Arts. Both his painting and his sculpture were admitted to the officially recognized Salon there, and while in England from 1896 to 1901 he received important commissions and royal recognition.In 1901 Borglum established himself in New York City, where he sculpted a bronze group called The Mares of Diomedes, the first piece of American sculpture bought for the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. Versatile and prolific, he sculpted many portrait busts of American leaders, as well as of figures such as the Twelve Apostles, which he created for the Cathedral Church of St. John the Divine in New York. But he soon turned toward what his wife, Elizabeth Janes Putnam, a scholar in cuneiform and other Middle Eastern scripts, described as “the emotional value of volume.” Reviving the ancient Egyptian practice of carving gargantuan statues of political figures in natural formations of rock, he executed from a six-ton block of marble a colossal head of President Abraham Lincoln (Lincoln, Abraham) that was placed in the Capitol Rotunda in Washington, D.C. This inspired a group of Southern women to commission a similar head of the Confederate general Robert E. Lee (Lee, Robert E.). Borglum was moved to begin instead a titanic sculptural procession of Lee and his staff and soldiers marching across the face of Stone Mountain in Decatur, Georgia. He began cutting away rock in 1916 and was able to unveil the head of Lee in 1924, but disputes with his patrons led Borglum shortly thereafter to abandon the enormous work, which was completed by others.In 1927 Borglum was commissioned by the state of South Dakota to turn Mount Rushmore (Mount Rushmore National Memorial), in the Black Hills, into another colossal monument. That year he began sculpting the 60-foot-high heads of George Washington (Washington, George), Thomas Jefferson (Jefferson, Thomas), Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt (Roosevelt, Theodore) on the face of the mountain, and in 1929 the United States government began financing the project, which would become a national memorial. Borglum brought all his engineering prowess to bear on this project, and he invented new methods that took advantage of the capacity of dynamite and pneumatic hammers to carve large quantities of stone quickly. Washington's head was unveiled in 1930, Jefferson's in 1936, Lincoln's in 1937, and Roosevelt's in 1939. The work was completed in 1941, the year of Borglum's death, although the last details were completed by his son, Lincoln Borglum.
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