▪ Islamin Islām, any innovation that has no roots in the traditional practice (sunna) of the Muslim community. The most fundamentalist legal school in Islām, the Ḥanābilah (and its modern survivor, the Wahhābīyah sect of Saudi Arabia) rejected bidʿah completely, arguing that the duty of a Muslim was to follow the example set by the Prophet (sunna) and not try to improve on it.Most Muslims, however, agreed that it was impossible to adapt to changing conditions without introducing some types of innovations. As a safeguard against any excesses, bidʿahs were classified as good (ḥasan) or praiseworthy (maḥmūdah), or bad (sayyʾah) or blameworthy (madhmūmah). They were further grouped under the five categories of Muslim law as follows: (1) among bidʿahs required of the Muslim community (farḍ kifāyah) are the study of Arabic grammar and philology as tools for the proper understanding of the Qurʾān, evaluation of Ḥadith (traditions or sayings of the Prophet Muḥammad) to determine their validity, the refutation of heretics, and the codification of law; (2) strictly forbidden (muḥarramah) are bidʿahs that undermine the principles of orthodoxy and thus constitute unbelief (kufr); (3) recommended (mandūb) is the founding of schools and religious houses; (4) disapproved (makrūh) are the ornamentation of mosques and the decoration of the Qurʾān; and finally (5) the law is indifferent (mubāḥah) to the bidʿahs of fine clothing and good food.
* * *