- Berr, Henri
▪ French historian and philosopherborn Jan. 31, 1863, Lunéville, Fr.died Nov. 19, 1954, ParisFrench historian and philosopher who founded a series of Parisian institutes and journals dedicated to the synthesis of historical and scientific scholarship.Educated at the École Normale Supérieure in Paris (1881–84), Berr taught for several years in Douai and Tours and between 1896 and 1925 was a professor at the Lycée Henri IV in Paris, meanwhile earning his doctorate in 1899 with a thesis on philosophy and history. In 1900 he founded the Revue de synthèse historique, a journal devoted to the integration of history and the social sciences, and in 1924 he founded the Centre International de Synthèse in Paris. Meanwhile, he undertook the enormous task of editing a cooperative enterprise entitled L'Évolution de l'humanité, 100 vol. (65 published between 1920 and 1954), a series of historical monographs intended as a synthetic survey of civilization from prehistory to the present.Berr himself developed a rather complicated theory of historical synthesis based on a distinction of three types of causal relations: the succession of facts, constant relations or necessity, and the internal or rational connection of facts. His other contributions included the establishment of another journal, Science, in 1936; a series of books on the question of Alsace-Lorraine and Germany; and a philosophical novel, L'Hymne à la vie (1942; “Hymn to Life”).
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