- Belmonte, Juan
▪ Spanish bullfighterin full Juan Belmonte y Garcíaborn April 14, 1892, Triana, near Sevilla, Spaindied April 8, 1962, UtreraSpanish bullfighter, one of the greatest toreros and the most revolutionary in his style.About 1914, early in his career (which extended from 1910 to 1935), Belmonte introduced the technique of standing erect, nearly motionless, and much closer to the bull's horns than earlier matadors had dared. Rather than using footwork to escape injury (accepted as the standard procedure before his time, but considered a sign of cowardice afterward), he diverted the bull's charge with skillful capework so that the horns would barely miss him. The American novelist and aficionado Ernest Hemingway (Hemingway, Ernest) wrote (in Death in the Afternoon, 1932) that Belmonte “would wind a bull around him like a belt.”In 1919 Belmonte set a Spanish bullfighting record (unbroken at his death 43 years later) for a single season by appearing in 109 corridas (bullfights). For eight years the great Joselito (José Gómez Ortega) was his chief rival and close friend until Joselito's fatal goring in 1920. Belmonte himself survived numerous near-fatal gorings. After his retirement he reared fighting bulls on his ganadería (ranch) at Utrera, Spain. His autobiography, Juan Belmonte, matador de toros: su vida y sus hazañas (1935), as told to Manuel Chaves Nogales, was translated into English as Juan Belmonte, Killer of Bulls (1937) by the novelist Leslie Charteris.
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