- Balla, Giacomo
▪ Italian artistborn July 24, 1871, Turin, Italydied March 1, 1958, RomeItalian artist and founding member of the Futurist (Futurism) movement in painting.Balla had little formal art training, having attended briefly an academy in Turin. He moved to Rome in his twenties. As a young artist, he was greatly influenced by French Neo-Impressionism during a sojourn he made in Paris in 1900. Upon his return to Rome, he adopted the Neo-Impressionist style and imparted it to two younger artists, Umberto Boccioni (Boccioni, Umberto) and Gino Severini (Severini, Gino). Balla's early works reflect contemporary French trends but also hint at his lifelong interest in rendering light and its effects. Balla, Boccioni, and Severini gradually came under the influence of the Milanese poet Filippo Marinetti (Marinetti, Filippo Tommaso), who in 1909 launched the literary movement he called Futurism, which was an attempt to revitalize Italian culture by embracing the power of modern science and technology. In 1910 Balla and other Italian artists published the Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting.Unlike most Futurists, Balla was a lyrical painter, unconcerned with modern machines or violence. The Street Light—Study of Light (1909), for example, is a dynamic depiction of light. Despite his unique taste in subject matter, in works such as this Balla conveys a sense of speed and urgency that puts his paintings in line with Futurism's fascination with the energy of modern life. One of his best-known works, Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash (1912), shows an almost frame-by-frame view of a woman walking a dog on a boulevard. The work illustrates his principle of simultaneity—i.e., the rendering of motion by simultaneously showing many aspects of a moving object. This interest in capturing a single moment in a series of planes was derived from Cubism, but it was also no doubt tied to Balla's interest in the technology of photography.During World War I Balla composed a series of paintings in which he attempted to convey the impression of movement or velocity through the use of planes of colour; these works are perhaps the most abstract of all Futurist paintings. After the war he remained faithful to the Futurist style long after its other practitioners had abandoned it. In addition to his painting, during these years he explored stage design, graphic design, and even acting. At the end of his career he abandoned his lifelong pursuit of near abstraction and reverted to a more traditional style.Additional ReadingS.K. de Rola, Balla (1983); Maurizio Fagiolo dell'Arco, Balla: The Futurist (1987); Susan Barnes Robinson, Giacomo Balla: Divisionism and Futurism, 1871–1912 (1981).
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