- Arnold of Brescia
▪ Italian religious reformerItalian Arnaldo da Bresciaborn c. 1100, Brescia, Republic of Venicedied c. June 1155, Civita Castellana or Monterotondo, Papal Statesradical religious reformer noted for his outspoken criticism of clerical wealth and corruption and for his strenuous opposition to the temporal power of the popes. He was prior of the monastery at Brescia, where in 1137 he participated in a popular revolt against the government of Bishop Manfred. His proposals for reforming the clergy and for ending the church's temporal powers caused him to be condemned as a schismatic by Pope Innocent II in 1139.Banished from Italy, Arnold went to France, where he became a supporter of the renowned theologian and philosopher Peter Abelard (Abelard, Peter). Both were condemned as heretics at the Council of Sens, France, in 1141, through the influence of St. Bernard of Clairvaux. Though Abelard submitted, Arnold defiantly continued teaching in Paris until, through the insistence of Bernard, he was exiled by King Louis VII the Young of France in 1141. Arnold fled first to Zürich, then to Passau, Ger., where he was protected by Cardinal Guido, through whose mediation he was reconciled with Pope Eugenius III at Viterbo, Papal States, in September 1145.Two years earlier the renovatio senatus (“renewal of the Senate”), seeking independence from ecclesiastical control, had expelled Innocent and the cardinals, revived the ancient senate, and proclaimed Rome a republic. Eugenius sent Arnold to Rome on a penitential pilgrimage. He soon allied himself with the insurgents and resumed his preaching against the Pope and cardinals. He was excommunicated in July 1148. Arnold's agitation for ecclesiastical reform vitalized the revolt against the Pope as temporal ruler, and he soon controlled the Romans. He also worked to consolidate the citizens' newly won independence.Pope Adrian IV placed Rome under interdict in 1155 and asked the citizens to surrender Arnold. The Senate submitted, the republic collapsed, and the papal government was restored. Arnold, who had fled, was captured by the forces of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, then visiting Rome for his imperial coronation. Arnold was tried by an ecclesiastical tribunal, condemned for heresy, and transferred to the Emperor for execution. He was hanged, his body burned, and his ashes cast into the Tiber River.Arnold's character was austere and his mode of life ascetic. His followers, known as Arnoldists, postulated an incompatibility between spiritual power and material possessions and rejected any temporal powers of the church. They were condemned in 1184 at the Synod of Verona, Republic of Venice. Arnold's personality has been distorted through modern poets and dramatists and Italian politicians. He was foremost a religious reformer, constrained by circumstances to become a political revolutionary.Additional ReadingGeorge William Greenaway, Arnold of Brescia (1931, reprinted 1978).
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