- Antoine, André
▪ French actorborn Jan. 31, 1858, Limoges, Fr.died Oct. 19, 1943, Pouliguenactor, theatrical manager, critic, and film director, a pioneer of naturalistic drama who founded the Théâtre-Libre in Paris. His contributions to the development of realism in modern films was only beginning to gain appreciation in the second half of the 20th century.Largely self-educated, Antoine was working as a clerk for the Paris Gas Company and acting part-time when in 1887 he founded the Théâtre-Libre as a showcase for the work of contemporary naturalistic playwrights. Despite an initially unenthusiastic reception he soon won wide acceptance and began financing his productions through private subscription.In its heyday (1887–93), the Théâtre-Libre introduced to French audiences the work of Brieux, Ibsen, Hauptmann, Strindberg, and others. It greatly influenced the modern French theatre and spawned a host of imitators around the world, among them the Freie Bühne in Berlin and the Independent Theatre in London. In 1896 financial losses forced him to close the theatre, but a year later, after serving briefly as co-director of the Théâtre de l'Odéon, he founded the Théâtre-Antoine, offering productions similar to those of his original company. In 1906 he was appointed sole director of the Odéon; he resigned after eight years to become a drama critic and an extremely innovative film director (1914–24). He directed such films as Les Frères corses (1915), Mademoiselle de la Seiglière (1920), and L'Arlésienne (1921).
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