▪ bird family
      bird family that includes ducks, geese, and swans; it constitutes the suborder Anseres—by far the larger part of the order Anseriformes (anseriform).

      A widely accepted system of classification divides the Anatidae into 3 subfamilies and 8 to 12 tribes, as follows:

      Anseranatinae—tribe Anseranatini (see magpie goose).

      Anserinae—tribes Dendrocygnini (see whistling duck, or tree duck) and Anserini (see goose; swan). A third tribe, Stictonettini, has been proposed (see freckled duck).

      Anatinae—tribes Tadornini (see sheldgoose; shelduck), Anatini (see dabbling duck), Cairinini (see perching duck), Aythyini (see pochard), Somateriini and Mergini (see diving duck), and Oxyurini (see stifftail). Some authorities include the eiders (Somateriini) in the Mergini; some separate a tribe Tachyerini (see steamer duck) from the Tadornini; and some recognize a tribe Merganettini (see torrent duck) aside from the Anatini. The Aythyini, Somateriini, Mergini, and (from one standpoint) the Oxyurini (pochard, diving duck, and stifftail) are often considered together in popular usage.

      An older division of the family appeared in several field books in wide use in the United States and Europe in the late 1960s. It assigned the Anatidae into the following main subfamilies (without tribes): Cygninae, swans; Anserinae, true geese; Dendrocygninae, whistling ducks; Anatinae, dabbling ducks, including shelducks and perching ducks; Nyrocinae (or Aythyinae), diving ducks other than mergansers; Erismaturinae (or Oxyurinae), stifftails; and Merginae, mergansers.

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Universalium. 2010.

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