- Amazigh languages
Introductionalso called Berber languagesfamily of languages in the Afro-Asiatic language (Afro-Asiatic languages) phylum. As they are the most homogeneous division within Afro-Asiatic, the Amazigh languages have often been referred to as a single language in the past (especially in the tradition of French scholarship). Amazigh languages are spoken today by some 14 million people, mostly in scattered enclaves found in the Maghrib, a large region of northern Africa between Egypt's Siwa Oasis and Mauretania. The heaviest concentration of Amazigh speakers is found in Morocco.Major Amazigh languages include Shilha (Tashelhit), Tarifit, Kabyle, Tamazight, and Tamahaq. The family may also include extinct languages such as the Guanche languages of the Canary Islands, Old Libyan (Numidian), and Old Mauretanian, which are known from inscriptions but have not yet been studied thoroughly enough to make any affirmative generalizations about their linguistic characteristics. Another possible member is the language called Iberian, after whose speakers the Iberian Peninsula is named. An old consonantal alphabet (tifinagh) has survived among the Tuareg. It relates to the early Libyan inscriptions and the Phoenician (Phoenician alphabet) quasi-alphabet.Phonetics and phonologyUnlike some members of the Afro-Asiatic phylum, Amazigh languages are not tone languages. They do, however, include emphatic consonants (consonant) (those formed deeply in the vocal tract), which occur in inherited words (such as ḍ and ẓ) and in the many loanwords from Arabic (such as ṣ). Pharyngeal consonants (those articulated at the back of the vocal tract with the pharynx), such as ḥ and ʿ (“ayn”), are found only in Arabic loanwords. Long consonants are quite common and are due to both gemination (doubling) and assimilation (i.e., when two adjacent but different consonants become identical in pronunciation, as with /b/ + /p/ in the English word “cupboard”).The sound system is further complicated by the fact that different consonants and vowels (vowel) may share some of their pronunciations, at times in relation to length. For example, w may be pronounced /w/ or /u/ when it is short but /ggW/, /kk/, or /bbW/ when it is long. There are three full vowels (a, i, and u). Groups of consonants are made pronounceable by prothesis or epenthesis (the insertion of a vowel at the beginning or in the middle of a word, respectively). Amazigh languages usually insert the vowel ə (“schwa”), which, however, is described as a full vowel for some varieties such as Southern Amazigh, Figuig, and most recently, for Siwi (in Egypt). These languages also have a system in which some consonants, called “weak radicals,” can be used as vowels depending on where they occur within the word; the weak radicals y and w, for instance, can become the vowels i and u.Morphology and grammarLike many other Afro-Asiatic languages, Amazigh languages are characterized by a root and pattern system of morphology. In a root and pattern system, the basic lexical meaning of the word is manifested in the consonants alone; this consonantal skeleton is the “root.” The sequence of vowels interspersed among the consonants (the “pattern”) adds grammatical information and may modify the basic lexical meaning of the root. Patterns are sometimes combined with prefixes or suffixes. While the root and pattern system is operative in the Amazigh family, it is less regularized there than in the Semitic languages.Amazigh nouns are distinguished by masculine and feminine gender and by two syntactic states, status absolutus and status annexus. Internal plurals are common, a practice demonstrated by the change from the pattern a-u- to i-a- in the root -ghy-l: aghyul ‘donkey' and ighyal ‘donkeys.' The suffix -(ə)n is also commonly used to make plurals, and both types of pluralization may combine, as in argaz ‘male' and irgazən ‘males.'Verbs and nouns derive from common roots; thus, *-k-r-s- (the asterisk * denotes a hypothetical construction from a proto-language), which connotes the general idea ‘tie/tying,' can be made into the verb tə-kras ‘she ties' as well as the noun t-akərris-t ‘knot.' Alternations of vowels also govern the verb stems used in mood and aspect formations, which are often described as tenses. Thus, the verb ‘to find' has the shape af in the aorist paradigm but has the two forms ufi and ufa (depending on the person and number of the subject) in the perfective aspect paradigm. Preverbal particles such as ad ‘future' allow further differentiation of tenses, as in the Kabyle verb aď-y-af ‘he will find.'In Amazigh languages, the “habitual” stem uses derivative strategies known from other Afro-Asiatic languages, such as t(t)- to indicate iterative or repeated action. Habitual stems appear to have been widely integrated into the aspectual system as well, yielding forms such as the Kabyle aď yə-tt-af ‘he will keep finding.' Infixes are used to denote position relative to the speaker, with the marker -d- indicating nearness or motion toward the speaker, while -n(n)- shows distance or motion away from the speaker. Derivational morphology, in which words are created from other words, is comparatively rare.Basic word order is, quite likely, verb–subject–object, even though subject–verb–object is also frequently found in main clauses. Note, however, that it is generally possible to emphasize particular parts of the clause by moving them to clause-initial position.Additional ReadingFew studies of Amazigh languages have been published in English, but a notable recent exception is Jeffrey Heath, A Grammar of Tamashek (Tuareg of Mali) (2005). One of the early descriptive milestones written in English is Ernest T. Abdel-Massih, Tamazight Verb Structure: A Generative Approach (1971). A good introduction to the topic is Joseph R. Applegate, “The Berber Languages,” in Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.), Current Trends in Linguistics, vol. 6 (1970), pp. 586–661.More-technical linguistic works include Maarten G. Kossmann and Hendrikus Joseph Stroomer, “Berber Phonology,” in Alan S. Kaye (ed.), Phonologies of Asia and Africa: (Including the Caucasus) (1997), vol. 1, pp. 461–475. An extensive bibliography on earlier works may be found in L. Galand, “Berbers, Section V: Language,” in H.A.R. Gibb et al. (eds.), The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new ed. (1960), pp. 1180–85.Much of the relevant literature is written in French; readers are referred to the works of Salem Chaker and to UNESCO's ongoing publication, Encyclopédie Berbère (1984–).
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