- Semitic languages
Family of Afro-Asiatic languages spoken in northern Africa and South Asia.No other language family has been attested in writing over a greater time spanfrom the late 3rd millennium BC to the present. Both traditional and some recent classifications divide the family into an eastern and western group. Until recently the sole known East Semitic language was Akkadian; now some scholars add Eblaite, the language of a cuneiform archive found at the ancient city of Ebla, with documents dating from с 2300–2250 BC. West Semitic contains as one major subgroup Northwest Semitic, which includes Ugaritic, known from alphabetic cuneiform texts of с 1400–1190 BC; the closely related Canaanite languages (including Moabite, Phoenician, and Ancient Hebrew); and Aramaic. Further subgrouping is controversial; traditionally, Arabic was placed in a distinct South Semitic subgroup of West Semitic, though a more recent classification puts it together with Northwest Semitic. The South Semitic languages include Epigraphic South Arabian; Modern South Arabian (or Modern South Arabic), a group of six languages spoken in eastern Yemen, southwestern Oman, and the island of Socotra; and Ethiopic.
* * *Introductionlanguages (language) that form a branch of the Afro-Asiatic (Afro-Asiatic languages) (formerly Hamito-Semitic) language phylum. Members of the Semitic group are spread throughout North Africa and Southwest Asia and have played preeminent roles in the linguistic (linguistics) and cultural landscape of the Middle East for more than 4,000 years.Languages in current useIn the early 21st century the most important Semitic language, in terms of the number of speakers, was Arabic (Arabic language). Standard Arabic is spoken as a first language by more than 200 million people living in a broad area stretching from the Atlantic coast of northern Africa to western Iran; an additional 250 million people in the region speak Standard Arabic as a secondary language. Most of the written and broadcast communication in the Arab world is conducted in this uniform literary language, alongside which numerous local Arabic dialects (dialect), often differing profoundly from one another, are used for purposes of day-to-day communication.Maltese (Maltese language), which originated as one such dialect, is the national language of Malta and has some 370,000 speakers. As a result of the revival of Hebrew (Hebrew language) in the 19th century and the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948, more than 5 million individuals now speak Modern Hebrew. Many of the numerous languages of Ethiopia are Semitic, including Amharic (Amharic language) (with some 17 million speakers) and, in the north, Tigrinya (Tigrinya language) (some 5.8 million speakers) and Tigré (Tigré language) (more than 1 million speakers). A Western Aramaic (Aramaic language) dialect is still spoken in the vicinity of Maʿlūlā, Syria, and Eastern Aramaic survives in the form of Ṭuroyo (native to an area in eastern Turkey), Modern Mandaic (in western Iran), and the Neo-Syriac (Syriac language) or Assyrian dialects (in Iraq, Turkey, and Iran). The Modern South Arabian languages Mehri, Ḥarsusi, Hobyot, Jibbali (also known as Śḥeri), and Socotri exist alongside Arabic on the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula and adjacent islands.Members of the Semitic language family are employed as official administrative languages in a number of states throughout the Middle East and the adjacent areas. Arabic is the official language of Algeria (with Tamazight (Amazigh languages)), Bahrain, Chad (with French), Djibouti (with French), Egypt, Iraq (with Kurdish (Kurdish language)), Israel (with Hebrew), Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania (where Arabic, Fulani, Soninke, and Wolof (Wolof language) have the status of national languages), Morocco, Oman, the Palestinian Authority, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia (with Somali), The Sudan (with English), Syria, Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates, and Yemen. Other Semitic languages designated as official are Hebrew in Israel (with Arabic) and Maltese in Malta (with English). In Ethiopia, which recognizes all locally spoken languages equally, Amharic is the “working language” of the government.Despite the fact that they are no longer regularly spoken, several Semitic languages retain great significance because of the roles that they play in the expression of religious culture—Biblical Hebrew in Judaism, Geʿez (Geʿez language) in Ethiopian Christianity, and Syriac (Syriac language) in Chaldean and Nestorian Christianity. In addition to the important position that it occupies in Arabic-speaking societies, literary Arabic exerts a major influence throughout the world as the medium of Islamic religion and civilization.Languages of the pastWritten records documenting languages belonging to the Semitic family reach back to the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE. Evidence of Old Akkadian (Akkadian language) is found in the Sumerian (Sumerian language) literary tradition. By the early 2nd millennium BCE, Akkadian dialects in Babylonia and Assyria had acquired the cuneiform writing system used by the Sumerians (Sumer), causing Akkadian to become the chief language of Mesopotamia (Mesopotamia, history of). The discovery of the ancient city of Ebla (modern Tall Mardīkh, Syria) led to the unearthing of archives written in Eblaite (Eblaite language) that date from the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE.Personal names from this early period, preserved in cuneiform records, provide an indirect picture of the western Semitic language Amorite (Amorite language). Although the Proto-Byblian and Proto-Sinaitic inscriptions still await a satisfactory decipherment, they too suggest the presence of Semitic languages in early 2nd-millennium Syro-Palestine. During its heyday from the 15th through the 13th century BCE, the important coastal city of Ugarit (modern Raʾs Shamra, Syria) left numerous records in Ugaritic (Ugaritic alphabet). The Egyptian diplomatic archives found at Tell el-Amarna (Amarna, Tell el-) have also proved to be an important source of information on the linguistic development of the area in the late 2nd millennium BCE. Though written in Akkadian, these tablets contain aberrant forms that reflect the languages native to the areas in which they were composed.From the end of the 2nd millennium BCE, languages of the Canaanite (Canaanite languages) group began to leave records in Syro-Palestine. Inscriptions using the Phoenician alphabet (from which the modern European alphabets (alphabet) were ultimately to descend) appeared throughout the Mediterranean area as Phoenician (Phoenicia) commerce flourished; Punic, the form of the Phoenician language used in the important North African colony of Carthage, remained in use until the 3rd century CE. The best known of the ancient Canaanite languages, Classical Hebrew, is familiar chiefly through the scriptures and religious writings of ancient Judaism. Although as a spoken language Hebrew gave way to Aramaic (Aramaic language), it remained an important vehicle for Jewish religious traditions and scholarship. A modern form of Hebrew developed as a spoken language during the Jewish national revival of the 19th and 20th centuries.Early in the 1st millennium BCE, documents in the Aramaic languages appeared. Isolated inscriptions in Old Aramaic dialects date back to the 9th century BCE. Under the Achaemenian Empire (Achaemenian Dynasty), varieties of Imperial Aramaic were used throughout the region for administrative purposes. As a result, dialects of Aramaic came to supplant local languages in many areas of the Middle East. Among the several forms of Aramaic that left written records were Hatran, Mandaic, Nabatean, Palmyrene, and, in particular, Syriac in Edessa. The Galilean and Babylonian dialects played important roles in the transmission of the traditions of Judaism.In the Arabian Peninsula, written records date back to the middle of the 1st millennium BCE. The kingdoms of ancient South Arabia ( Sabaʾ, Minaea, Qataban, and Ḥaḍramawt) left numerous inscriptions in the Epigraphic South Arabian (ESA) languages; a descendant of the ESA alphabet was used for the composition of Geʿez (Classical Ethiopic) literature and is still used by the modern Ethiopian languages. In the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula, traces of early North Arabian languages, including Liḥyanite, Safaitic, and Thamudic, have been uncovered. Closely akin to these languages was Arabic, which, with the advent of Islam and the conquests of the 7th century, was carried as far as Spain and Central Asia. As a literary language, Arabic produced an immense amount of scholarly and artistic literature (Arabic literature), much of which was recorded in Kūfic script, the earliest form of Arabic calligraphy. In its numerous regional dialects, Arabic came to be used as the spoken language throughout North Africa, Syro-Palestine, Mesopotamia, and beyond (see also history of Arabia (Arabia, history of)).ClassificationIn terms of structure, the attested Semitic languages form four main clusters: Akkadian; the Northwest Semitic group, comprising the Canaanite and Aramaic groups, together with Ugaritic and Amorite; Arabic; and the Southwest Semitic group, comprising the Ethiopic and Modern South Arabian languages and quite possibly the Epigraphic South Arabian group. The position of Eblaite, which shares features with both Akkadian and the Northwest Semitic languages, remains debated.This fourfold division provides the framework for discussions of the genetic relations between the Semitic languages. Akkadian clearly split off from the remainder of the languages quite early, forming an East Semitic branch distinct from the remaining West Semitic languages. Within the West Semitic languages, the critical problem lies in the position of Arabic relative to the Northwestern and Southwestern groups: while the structure of the Arabic verb mirrors that of the Northwest Semitic languages in many respects, in its sound system and word-formation processes Arabic seems more closely akin to the Ethiopian and Modern South Arabian groups. Many researchers link Arabic with the Northwest Semitic group to form a Central Semitic branch; others choose to view Arabic and the Southwest Semitic languages as constituting a South Semitic group.In the evaluation of the relationship of one language to another, the information provided by a shared innovation is assigned greater weight than that derived from a shared archaism. Determining whether a feature is an innovation or an archaism can be problematic, however, because it depends upon an understanding of the precursor of the languages to be compared. This can be a relatively straightforward process when the analysis involves a well-attested precursor language but becomes more difficult when it relies on the reconstruction of a protolanguage—the hypothetical ancestor of a set of related languages. Many aspects of protolanguages are postulated on the basis of a careful comparison of the features of the known descendant languages and so are derived rather than diagnostic in nature. Such is the case in the interpretation of the various features linking Arabic to either the Southwest Semitic languages, or, in contrast, the Northwest Semitic languages. An evaluation of these links depends upon the form in which proto-Semitic is reconstructed.Unlike the Northwest Semitic languages, both Arabic and the languages of the Southwest group regularly employ “broken” stem patterns to form plural substantives (see below Nouns and adjectives (Semitic languages)). Since it is likely, however, that, to one degree or another, broken plurals were already a feature of the ancestral Semitic language, the presence of such plural structures cannot be used as evidence of any particularly close genetic connection between Arabic and the Southwest Semitic group. Somewhat stronger support for a separate South Semitic branch may be seen in such features as the f, which has developed in both Arabic and the Southwest Semitic languages from the early Semitic *p (the symbol * indicates information derived from linguistic reconstruction rather than from direct attestation).The form assumed by the present imperfective verb stem in the various languages has become widely used as a diagnostic feature in classifying the Semitic languages (see below Verbal inflection (Semitic languages)). If, as has become widely accepted, the form of verbal inflection found in both Arabic and the Northwest Semitic languages represents an innovative development common to these languages, this feature will provide valuable support for the theory of an intermediate Central Semitic branch.The phonology (sound system) of a given language is described on two separate levels. The phonetic (phonetics) level reflects the nature of speech sounds in terms of their objective physical properties, such as the activities of the tongue, lips, and other organs producing the sound or the sound's acoustic effect. At the phonemic (phonemics) level, in contrast, a sound is investigated to determine its role in a particular communication system—the ways in which the sound is distinct from the other sounds of the language and the various manners in which the system's grammar exploits these distinctions in order to convey information.Because the phonetic and phonemic aspects of the sound system are two separate domains, it is quite possible to have a fairly comprehensive understanding of a language's phonemic system even if very little information is available on the language's phonetic system. This is the case, for example, with many languages known only through written records. It is also important to bear the phonetic-phonemic distinction in mind in discussing the reconstruction of a protolanguage.The phonetic systemThe Semitic protolanguage employed a set of six phonemic vowels (vowel), three short and three long: *a, *i, *u, *ā, *ī, *ū. In contrast to the simplicity of this vowel system, the consonantal (consonant) inventory of proto-Semitic was quite extensive. In addition to employing the lips, the front of the tongue, the palate, and the nasal cavity, proto-Semitic made use of the larynx (the area of the throat in which the vocal cords (vocal cord) are located), the pharynx (the upper throat near the root of the tongue), the uvula (the fleshy area at the extreme rear of the roof of the mouth), and the side of the tongue.Today the complete array of consonants is found preserved among certain of the Modern South Arabian (MSA) languages (of the Southwest Semitic group); with the exception of the Southwest Semitic or Arabic f, which developed from the proto-Semitic *p, the more conservative MSA languages quite faithfully recapitulate the presumed phonetics of the Semitic ancestral system. The Epigraphic South Arabian languages (ancient members of the same group) also used a set of characters that reflected the full set of consonants, but as these languages are known only through inscriptions, there is no information on their phonetic makeup.The voiceless, voiced, and emphatic soundsLike many languages, the Semitic languages have consonants belonging to a “voiceless series” (pronounced without vibration of the vocal cords, as in English p, t, k) and a “voiced series” (the pronunciation of which is accompanied by a buzzing of the vocal cords, as in English b, d, g).In addition, the Semitic languages employ a third series known as “emphatic.” The exact nature of emphasis in the Semitic protolanguage remains debated, because the attested languages have two distinct modes for producing these sounds. An example of the first mode occurs in Arabic, where the emphatics ṭ, ḍh (from proto-Semitic *ṭh), ṣ, ḍ (from proto-Semitic *) are produced with the rear part of the tongue raised toward the roof of the mouth, giving the sounds a “darkened” effect. Likewise, in Classical Arabic the emphatic *ḳ is realized as a q, a k-like sound produced farther back, in the uvular area.In contrast to this first, “Arabic” mode, the emphatics of the Ethiopic and Modern South Arabian groups are made with an “ejective” pronunciation. For instance, in producing an ejective t the airstream is closed off simultaneously by the front of the tongue (as in the case of a nonejective t) and by the vocal cords, and the release of the closure at the tongue is accompanied by a slight burst from the air contained between the two points. This ejective manner of articulating the emphatics is more likely to have been the state of affairs in proto-Semitic.In Hebrew and several varieties of Aramaic, the stop consonants—those in which the flow of air is entirely shut off by the tongue or lips—of the voiceless and voiced groups (that is, of p, t, k, b, d, g) become “weakened” in the position following a vowel, changing their pronunciation to f, th, x, v, dh, gh, respectively. This “positional variant” of the sound is transcribed by means of underlining (p, t, k, b, d, g), as in the Hebrew kåbed ‘he was heavy' and yi-kbad ‘he will be heavy.' This weakening contrasts with the corresponding emphatic stops (ṭ, ḳ), for which the fully closed articulation of the sound is retained.The dental continuant or interdental soundsIn phonetic terms, the dental continuants (voiceless *th and voiced *dh) were probably pronounced like the initial sounds of English think and this, respectively. The emphatic *ṭh of early Semitic was probably an analogue to th pronounced as an ejective.In many of the Semitic languages, the original dental continuants have been lost. In Canaanite and in all but the oldest Akkadian texts, the dental continuants fell together completely with the sibilant sounds *š, *z, and *ṣ, while in later Aramaic they fell together with *t, *d, and *ṭ.In a number of the Semitic languages, the line separating the dental continuants from the various sibilant (hissing) sounds has become blurred. The original sibilant set consisted of the set of voiceless, voiced, and emphatic sibilants (*s, *z, *ṣ) and the sound *š (probably pronounced like the sh of English ship). The lateral series (sounds produced by allowing the air to escape along the edge of the tongue, as happens in English l) consisted of the voiceless *ś (probably like the ll of Welsh), its emphatic counterpart *, and the sonorant *l.The original lateral articulation of Semitic *ś and * still survives in Modern South Arabian; the earliest forms of Ethiopic also used separate characters for these sounds, but they later fell together with the sibilants s and ṣ. In Akkadian, Ugaritic, and Phoenician, the *ś has merged with *š, but it seems to have still been distinct from *š in the early stages of Hebrew and Aramaic; only in the later forms of these languages did its pronunciation fall together with that of *s, and it is still written with a special character ś in Hebrew. In Arabic the descendant of proto-Semitic *ś is pronounced like English sh, while the original proto-Semitic *š has merged with *s. In all but the earliest Ethiopic, all three sibilants have fallen together as s, but among the modern Ethiopian languages a new series of palatal sounds, including a new š, has appeared, as in Amharic anči təžämməriyalläš ‘you (feminine singular) are beginning.'The emphatic lateral * has joined *ṭh in merging with the emphatic sibilant (ṣ) in Akkadian and in the Canaanite and Ethiopic groups. The history of * in the Aramaic languages is complex and unclear—in early Aramaic inscriptions the reflex of * was spelled with the same character as the reflex of Semitic *ḳ, but by later Aramaic it had merged with the pharyngeal reversed glottal stop *ʿ (ayn, discussed further in the next section). In most dialects of spoken Arabic, * has merged with *ṭh, but it is still reflected by a distinct phoneme (ḍ) in Classical Arabic. Though Arabic ḍ is now conventionally pronounced as an emphatic counterpart to d, it is clear from the descriptions of medieval grammarians that in early Classical Arabic this “ḍ” had a lateral articulation, comparable to the pronunciation that the reflex of * still has in the Modern South Arabian languages.The laryngeal, pharyngeal and uvular soundsThe sound system of the typical Semitic language makes more use of the throat and the rear area of the mouth than do many languages. Both the h and the glottal stop (indicated by the hamzah ʾ) are pronounced in the larynx. The latter sound is formed by cutting off the airstream through the shutting of the vocal cords, as in the middle of the exclamation uh-oh! or in the Cockney English pronunciation of “bottle” as boʾl. A gagginglike constriction of the pharynx produces the rasping effect characteristic of the pharyngeal sounds ḥ and the reversed glottal stop, indicated by the ayn (ʿ); the voiceless ḥ sounds like a harsh h-sound, while its voiced counterpart ʿ gives the impression of a hoarse, rasping a-sound.The sound of air rushing past the uvula produces the uvular x (sounding like the ch of German Bach or Scottish loch). Its voiced counterpart, the gh, resembles the standard French r-sound.The laryngeal, pharyngeal, and uvular elements survived intact in Ugaritic, Classical Arabic, and several of the Modern South Arabian languages. In the Canaanite and Aramaic languages the uvular set (*x, *gh) merged with the pharyngeal set (ḥ, ʿ). In North Ethiopic the *gh likewise fell together with the *ʿ. In the South Ethiopic languages all three series have been completely lost, but a new h has developed through the weakening of *k, as in Amharic əyəz-allähw ‘I am taking,' the constituent parts of which correspond to Geʿez ʾəʾəxxəz ‘I take' and halloku ‘I am.' Generally in Akkadian only *x survived (rendered by the character ḫ in the Assyriological tradition), but the earlier presence of the remaining uvulars, pharyngeals, and laryngeals may often be seen in the effects that they exercised upon neighbouring vowels.The stem: root and pattern analysis (root and pattern system)Arabic root and pattern combinationsThe stem-formation processes of the Semitic languages have long been described in terms of a “root” interwoven with a “pattern.” The root (indicated here with the symbol √) is a set of consonants arranged in a specific sequence; it identifies the general realm of the word's meaning. Grammatical meanings, such as part of speech and tense, are reflected in the stem's vocalic (vowel) and syllabic features—the pattern. The table Arabic root and pattern combinations provides a comparison of the root and pattern systems for two Arabic stems.A given set of Semitic stems may thus be distinguished by either the pattern or the root. In the first case the stems have a common root and thus share a common semantic field, as with the English verbs write, wrote, and written. These three verbs share the root √wrt(t) (parenthetical letters reflect an optional change) and are differentiated by the pattern -i-, -o-, -i-en, which determines tense. In the second case, the pattern (-i-, -o-, -i-en) can be combined with another root, such as √rs, for rise, rose, and risen; the tenses parallel those in the first case, but the concept or semantic field of the series has changed.The great majority of Semitic roots consist of three consonants, as with the Arabic roots √ktb and √qrʾ (associated with the general notions of writing and reading, respectively). However, some roots contain two, four, or even five consonants. Since the Middle Ages, the root-pattern model has provided the organizational framework for most of the lexicographical work on the Semitic languages.Linguists describe the organization of a given word by using an abstract string of elements. Typically, their descriptions combine letters and punctuation marks: in “CVCVC-” each “C” represents a consonant in the root, each “V” represents a vocalic in the pattern, and the hyphen represents a suffix (or, if placed before the string, a prefix). The affixes used in many Semitic patterns feature additional consonantal elements, such as the ma- of the Arabic passive participle and the infixed -sta- of the Tenth Form of the Arabic verb.In a typical European language, the lexical sense resides primarily in the stem and the grammatical information is found in affixes: washed from the stem wash- and the past tense marker -ed, and washer from the stem wash- and the agent-suffix -er. In contrast, the Semitic stem indicates different grammatical contexts by using the root-pattern system and as a result can appear in quite different shapes. Compare, for instance, the many variants on the Arabic root √ktb: the past stem (active) katab-, as in katab-tu ‘I wrote'; the past stem (passive) kutib-, as in kutib-a ‘it was written'; the present stem (active) -ktub-, as in ʾa-ktub-u ‘I write'; and the active participial stem kātib-, as in kātib-un ‘writing [one].'In general, it is in the study of the verbal system that the root-pattern model of Semitic morphology plays the greatest role. In other areas of the language, the place occupied by the root-pattern model is less dramatic. Among basic nouns, for example, the pattern of the word seldom has any identifiable grammatical value; observe the varying syllable structures and vocalization patterns of Arabic kalb- ‘dog' and bn- ‘son,' in which decomposition along root-pattern lines (e.g., taking the stem kalb- to consist of a root √klb for the stem configuration CaCC) serves no grammatical purpose. Nonetheless, even among these nominal stems there are subsystems in which the root-pattern distinction retains its usefulness, as in such Arabic diminutives as kulayb- ‘little dog' and bunayy- ‘little son,' where analysis may reveal a vowel-pattern -u-ay- that conveys a diminutive meaning.Nouns and adjectivesTo the stem of a typical Semitic word, one or more additional elements may be attached, including suffixes, prefixes, or circumfixes (which appear both before and after the stem). For nouns and adjectives these inflectional (inflection) elements indicate gender (masculine or feminine), number (singular, plural, and in some languages, dual), and, in several of the older languages, case (nominative, accusative, or genitive). For verbs the inflectional elements can indicate the person, number, gender, mood, tense, and aspect (the construing of events as completed versus continuing).The early Semitic case-marking system, by which the ending of a noun or adjective indicated the function that it played in its sentence, is preserved most clearly in classical Arabic and in Akkadian. For instance, kalb ‘dog,' is rendered in the Arabic nominative, accusative, and genitive cases, respectively, as kalb-un ‘the dog' (as a subject), kalb-an ‘the dog' (as an object), and kalb-in ‘(of) the dog' (as a possessor).Most Arabic nouns have a full tripartite set of endings that agree closely with the case endings of Akkadian. Indirect support for a common three-way set of endings is also provided by Ugaritic. In addition to this tripartite set of endings, however, there is a set of stems in Arabic (the so-called diptotic stems) that have endings distinguishing only the nominative case and a general accusative and genitive case. An example is the nominative ʾakbar-u ‘greatest' and the accusative/genitive ʾakbar-a. In Akkadian, in addition to the three basic cases seen above, a locative suffix -um and a terminative and adverbial suffix -iš have also been interpreted as case markers by some investigators.Adding the suffix *-(a)t- to an early Semitic nominal or adjectival stem produced a secondary feminine stem, as in Arabic kātib-at-un ‘writer' (feminine) versus kātib-un (masculine). Alternative means of forming the feminine form are also encountered in the case of certain stem classes, as in the Arabic stems for ‘red,' ʾaḥmar-u (masculine) and ḥamrāʾ-u (feminine), and for ‘black,' ʾaswad-u (masculine) and sawdāʾ-u (feminine).Most of the inflectional processes found in Semitic nouns and adjectives involve suffixes. For a very large number of nouns in Arabic and the Southwest Semitic languages, however, plurality is indicated directly through the pattern of the stem rather than by means of an ending. Such nouns constitute the class of “broken” plurals, while the remaining nouns, which use a long-vowel ending to mark plurality, are called the “sound” type. Outside Arabic and the Southwest Semitic languages, the sound method of plural formation predominates, though residual traces in the remaining Semitic languages, as in Syriac ḥemrā, plural of ḥəmārā ‘donkey,' suggest that broken plurals cannot be regarded solely as a peculiarity of the languages of the southern area.The broken plural stems are of a wide variety of types. Some are systematic, virtually predictable formations such as *CaCāCiC-, which acts as the typical plural configuration of stems containing four consonants: Arabic thaʿālib-u is the plural form of thaʿlab-un ‘fox,' and ʾaṣābiʿ-u is the plural of ʾiṣbaʿ-un ‘finger.' Others are isolated stems that for all practical purposes serve as independent collective nouns: xadam-un ‘servants' and xādim-un ‘servant'; ḥamīr-un ‘donkeys' and ḥimār-un ‘donkey.' Many nouns have more than one possible plural, and in many cases homonymous singular stems are distinguished by the plural forms with which they are associated (Arabic ʿāmil-un ‘worker, factor' but ʿummāl-un ‘workers,' ʿawāmil-u ‘factors').Adjectives agree in gender, number, and case (for those languages that mark case) with the noun with which they are associated; in addition, several languages have developed a definite article that is also shared by the adjective, as in Hebrew hå-ʾîš hag-gådol ‘the-man the-great,' hå-ʾiššâ hag-gədol-â ‘the-woman the-great-[feminine].' The cardinal numerals from 3 to 10 show a peculiar reversal of gender agreement: what is normally the feminine ending is added to the stem of the numeral in conjunction with masculine nouns (Hebrew šəloš-εt bånîm ‘three-[feminine suffix] sons'), while the form lacking the ending occurs with feminine nouns (šəloš bånôt ‘three-[masculine suffix] daughters').Verbal morphologyThe stemSemitic stem variation: Manifestations of the Proto-Semitic rootSemitic verbs are classified into various groups on the basis of the configuration of the stem. These groups are known as stems, forms, or binyan-im (singular binyan), a Hebrew term. The most basic form is called the G-stem (from the German Grundstamm ‘master stem'). The table Semitic stem variation: Manifestations of the Proto-Semitic root provides examples of the relation between basic and derived stems.The most basic form is a root (√CCC) that combines with two related patterns (-V- and -V-V-) to create a one-vowel stem (-CCVC-) and a two-vowel stem (-CVC[C]VC-). This alternation of vowel shape is the key to the temporal and aspectual inflection of the verb. In Arabic, for instance, the one-vowel stem formed from the root √ktb indicates the present tense (ya-ktub-u ‘[he] writes'), while the two-vowel shape indicates the past tense (katab-a ‘[he] wrote'). The Akkadian preterite i-prus ‘(he) divided' and present tense i-parras ‘(he) is dividing' provide another example, this time formed on the root √prs.The remaining stem types of the verb are known as the derived stems and feature the incorporation of one or more of a set of morphological elements—stem prefixes, stem infixes, consonantal doubling, and vocalic length—into the stem. Several of the derived stem classes are associated with an identifiable meaning such as causativity or reflexivity, although such associations are not absolutely consistent. A number of the derived stems—among them the N-stem, the D-stem (characterized by the optional doubling of the second root-consonant), and secondary stems derived through the addition of the marker *t(a)—are attested throughout all or most of the Semitic languages.Other derived stem verb formations are limited to specific languages and represent local innovations. An example is the Ethiopic stem type ʾastaCāCaC-, as in ʾastaḥāmam-a ‘he studied closely,' which combines the stem prefix ʾasta- with a long vowel ā and the root √ḥmm.Inflectionally governed ablaut, or vowel alternation, is systematically found in the final vowel of the verb stem. Ablaut is characteristic of the G-stem, as demonstrated by the vowels a and u in Akkadian present i-parras versus preterite i-prus. In this example the vowel patterns specify the meaning of each verb.Ablaut is also employed as a grammatical process among the derived verbs, as in Akkadian present ušapras ‘he causes to divide' versus preterite ušapris ‘he caused to divide.' In several of the West Semitic languages, characteristic vowel patterns have developed as a means of marking the passive voice—Arabic katab-a ‘he wrote' versus kutib-a ‘it (masculine) was written.'Semitic verb inflectionSemitic languages typically use affixes (affix) marking number (singular, plural, and, in certain languages, dual), gender, and person; these are attached to the verb stem. However, there is some variation in inflection within the language family. The table Semitic verb inflection provides examples of Semitic verb inflection.Arabic and the Northwest Semitic languagesIn the Northwest Semitic languages and Arabic, there are two contrasting sets of affixes, the first associated with the past perfective form of the stem and the second with the nonpast imperfective stem. The perfective markers are suffixes: compare -tî and -û in Hebrew qåbár-tî ‘I buried' and qåbər-û ‘they buried.' In contrast the imperfective affixes are composed of a prefix (ʾε- in ʾε-qbor ‘I bury') or a circumfix (yi-stem-û in yi-qbər-û ‘they [masculine] bury').Markers reflecting the moods (mood)—in the case of Arabic, the indicative, jussive, and subjunctive and the inadequately understood “energetic”—are placed at the end of the imperfective stem verb, as in Arabic indicative ʾaqbur-u ‘I bury' and subjunctive ʾaqbur-a ‘…that I bury.' The most extensive system of moods is shown by classical Arabic, but clear indications of comparable modal markers are also to be found in several of the Northwest Semitic languages, most notably Ugaritic.Southwest Semitic languagesIn the Southwest Semitic languages the basic form of the verb has three principal parts rather than two. The first of these is a perfective stem, as in Geʿez qabar-a ‘he buried'; the Geʿez perfective stem resembles that of the Arabic and the Northwest Semitic languages both in function (past perfective) and in marking the subject by means of a suffix. The second of the principal parts is a modal stem (Geʿez yə-qbər ‘may he bury') that is similar to the imperfective stem of Arabic and Northwest Semitic in the shape of its stem and in the fact that it is inflected by means of prefixes or circumfixes. The third principal part is a distinct indicative imperfective stem (Geʿez yə-qabbər) that employs the same prefixes and circumfixes as the modal verb form but has a distinctive disyllabic shape (-CaC[C]əC-).Since Akkadian finite verbs had only a single set of person-number markers, and because this set corresponds to the West Semitic prefix and circumfix set, the task of distinguishing the various tense and aspect forms fell to the various shapes assumed by the stem itself, as in present i-qebbir ‘he buries,' preterite i-qbir ‘he buried,' and the so-called perfect i-qtebir ‘he had buried.' The resemblance of the Akkadian present to its Southwest Semitic counterpart (compare Akkadian i-qebbir with Geʿez yə-qabbər above) has led many researchers to hypothesize that an ancestral Semitic imperfective *yV-CaC(C)VC- formation has been replaced by the (historically secondary) *yV-CCVC-u in the Arabic and Northwest Semitic groups.The so-called stative of Akkadian used auxiliaries rather than inflection (a technique known as periphrastic construction, as with English “book of mine” rather than “my book”) and included a deverbal adjective (an adjective based on a verb, as with the English “achievable” from “to achieve”) to which a subject-marking suffix was added. It was used to express situations resulting from a prior event, as in qebr-ēku ‘I have been buried,' based on qebir- ‘buried.' Many researchers believe that the Akkadian stative was the starting point for the development of the suffixed perfective conjugation of West Semitic. Periphrastic verbal constructions of various sorts are also found in a number of other Semitic languages. Among the more interesting are the Amharic perfect construction nägərr(e)yallähw ‘I have spoken' formed by the gerundive nägərr-e ‘I having spoken' and all-ähw ‘I am.' Another interesting example is the Neo-Syriac (Aradhin dialect) preterite construction xizyāli baxta ‘I saw the woman' formed by xizy-a ‘seen (feminine object)' and l-i ‘to-me.' This form of construction is evidently based at least in part on analogues in the neighbouring Kurdish language.David TestenAdditional ReadingValuable surveys of these languages may be found in Gotthelf Bergsträsser, Introduction to the Semitic Languages, trans. by Peter T. Daniels (1983; originally published in German, 1928); Robert Hetzron, “Semitic Languages,” in William Bright (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, vol. 3 (1992), pp. 412–417; John Huehnergard, “Semitic Languages,” in Jack M. Sasson (ed.), Civilizations of the Ancient Near East (1995), pp. 2117–34; Sabatino Moscati et al., An Introduction to the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages (1964, reissued 1980); and William Wright, Lectures on the Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages, ed. by William Robertson Smith (1890, reprinted 2002). I.M. Diakonoff, Semito-Hamitic Languages, trans. from Russian (1965), discusses the relationship of the Semitic group to the other Afro-Asiatic languages.A discussion of the individual languages and language groups can be found in Thomas A. Sebeok (ed.), Current Trends in Linguistics, vol. 6, Linguistics in South West Asia and North Africa (1970).Discussions of Akkadian are the focus of Richard Caplice and Daniel Snell, Introduction to Akkadian, 4th ed. (2002); Erica Reiner, A Linguistic Analysis of Akkadian (1966); and Arthur Ungnad, Akkadian Grammar, revised by Lubor Matouš (1992). The standard lexicographical works are Ignace J. Gelb et al. (eds.), The Assyrian Dictionary of the Oriental Institue of the University of Chicago (1956– ); and Wolfram von Soden (ed.), Akkadisches Handwörterbuch, 3 vol. (1965–81).Giovanni Pettinato, The Archives of Ebla: An Empire Inscribed in Clay (1981; originally published in Italian, 1979), details Ebla and its language.A great amount of material is available on the Hebrew language. Important reference works include E. Kautzsch (ed.), Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar, 2nd ed. (1910, reprinted 2006; originally published in German, 1909); Lewis Glinert (ed.), Hebrew in Ashkenaz: A Language in Exile (1993); Nahum M. Waldman, The Recent Study of Hebrew: A Survey of the Literature with Selected Bibliography (1989); and Bruce K. Waltke and M. O'Connor, An Introduction to Biblical Hebrew Syntax (1990).The remaining Northwest Semitic languages are treated in W. Randall Garr, Dialect Geography of Syria-Palestine, 1000–586 B.C.E. (1985); Cyrus H. Gordon, Ugaritic Textbook (1965); Zellig S. Harris, Development of the Canaanite Dialects (1939, reprinted 1978); Georg Krotkoff, A Neo-Aramaic Dialect of Kurdistan (1982); Franz Rosenthal, A Grammar of Biblical Aramaic, 6th, rev. ed. (1995); Stanislav Segert, A Grammar of Phoenician and Punic (1976), and A Basic Grammar of the Ugaritic Language (1984); and K.G. Tsereteli, The Modern Assyrian Language (1978; originally published in Russian 1964).Important resources for Arabic are William Wright (ed. and trans.), A Grammar of the Arabic Language, 2 vol., 3rd ed. rev. by W. Robertson Smith and J.J. de Goeje (1896–98, reprinted, 2 vol. in 1, 2005; originally published in Latin, 1848); and Edward William Lane, An Arabic-English Lexicon, 2 vol. in 8 parts (1863–93, reprinted in 8 vol., 1985).The Southwest Semitic languages are treated in A.F.L. Beeston, Sabaic Grammar (1984); August Dillmann, Ethiopic Grammar, 2nd ed., enlarged and improved by Carol Bezold, trans. by James A. Crichton (1907, reprinted 2003; originally published in German, 2nd ed., 1899); Wolf Leslau, Comparative Dictionary of Geʿez (Classical Ethiopic) (1987), and Reference Grammar of Amharic (1995); T.M. Johnstone, The Modern South Arabian Languages (1975); and Edward Ullendorff, The Semitic Languages of Ethiopia: A Comparative Phonology (1955).
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