▪ Sikh movement
      (Punjabi: “Timeless One,” or “Eternal One”), a movement in Sikhism; also any member of suicide squads in the armies of the Sikhs, a religious group of India. The Akālī suicide squads first appeared about 1690 when the execution of two predecessors and continuing persecution by the Mughals forced the 10th Gurū Gobind Singh to take up arms. The Akālīs were also known as nihangs (Persian: “crocodiles”; a name first used by the Mughals for their suicide squads) and wore a distinctive blue uniform. Some present-day Akālīs continue to wear a blue tunic and a conical blue turban and to carry a sword.

      The Akālī name was revived in the 1920s during the gurdwara reform movement as a semimilitary corps of volunteers raised to oppose the British government. After the Sikhs regained control of their gurdwaras, or shrines, the Akālīs continued to represent the Sikh community in the Punjab and took the lead in the agitation for a Punjabi-speaking, Sikh-majority state. This goal was achieved in 1966 with the establishment of the Indian state of Punjab. A major political party of Punjab state is the Shiromanī Akālī Dal (SAD; “Leading Akālī Party”). Although it competes in national elections, it is mainly concerned with the status of the Sikhs in Punjab state.

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Universalium. 2010.

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