- Siad Barre, Muhammad
▪ 1996(MAXAMED SIYAAD BARRE), Somali general and political leader (b. c. 1919, Ganane, Italian Somaliland—d. Jan. 2, 1995, Lagos, Nigeria), held dictatorial rule over Somalia from October 1969, when he led a bloodless military coup against the elected government, until January 1991, when he was overthrown in a bloody civil war. Siad was born about 1919 (or earlier) into a nomadic family in the small Marehan clan of the Daarood clan group in southern Somaliland. He joined the Somali police force after the British took control in 1941 and rose to the post of chief inspector. When Somalia was returned to Italian sovereignty in 1950, Siad was sent to the military academy in Italy. He transferred to the Somali national army when it was formed (1960), and by 1966 he held the rank of major general and had become commander in chief. After taking state power on Oct. 22, 1969, Siad made himself head of a Supreme Revolutionary Council and imposed autocratic rule through a personality cult and the harsh enforcement of an official ideology called "Scientific Socialism." He strengthened relations with the Soviet Union, officially outlawed clan loyalties (while using clan elders to establish order in rural areas), and promoted literacy with a newly introduced Roman alphabet. He later renounced his ties with the Soviets and sought U.S. aid, but allegations of human rights abuses hurt his international standing. By 1990 fighting among clans and between clan militias and the government forced Siad to promise reforms, including free elections. He was forced out of office in January 1991 and in 1992 went into exile in Nigeria.
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