Reichstein, Tadeus

Reichstein, Tadeus
▪ 1997

      Polish-born Swiss chemist (b. July 20, 1897, Wloclawek, Pol.—d. Aug. 1, 1996, Basel, Switz.), identified the steroid hormones of the adrenal cortex and studied their structure and biological effects. For his role in this discovery, he shared the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1950 with Philip S. Hench and Edward C. Kendall, who carried out independent research on steroids. Reichstein showed that the adrenal cortex, the outer portion of the adrenal glands located at the upper ends of the kidneys, produces many hormones. He and his colleagues isolated and examined about 29 of them, including cortisone, which was discovered to be an anti-inflammatory agent useful in the treatment of arthritis. Reichstein graduated (1920) with a degree in chemical engineering from the Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, where he obtained a Ph.D. two years later. In 1930 he became an instructor there, and he had risen to the level of associate professor by the time he left in 1937. His early research with Nobel Prize-winning chemist Hermann Staudinger included identifying the chemicals in coffee that impart flavour and aroma, work that provided the basis for the development of powdered coffee. He also devised a method for synthesizing (1933) vitamin C in the laboratory, a procedure that remained widely in use in commercial production of the vitamin. In 1938 Reichstein moved to the University of Basel and was appointed director of the Pharmaceutical Institute; in 1946 he became head of the newly created Institute of Organic Chemistry. There he studied plant-derived glycosides, chemicals that have a wide range of biological effects, to determine their usefulness as pharmaceuticals. This work also was important in plant classification. Although he retired in 1967, Reichstein conducted significant research into his 90s.

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▪ Swiss chemist
born July 20, 1897, Włocławek, Pol.
died Aug. 1, 1996, Basel, Switz.

      Swiss chemist who, with Philip S. Hench (Hench, Philip Showalter) and Edward C. Kendall (Kendall, Edward Calvin), received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1950 for his discoveries concerning hormones of the adrenal cortex.

      Reichstein was educated in Zürich and held posts in the department of organic chemistry at the Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich, from 1930. From 1946 to 1967 he was professor of organic chemistry at the University of Basel. He received the Nobel Prize for research carried out independently on the steroid hormones (steroid hormone) produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer layer of the adrenal gland. Reichstein and his colleagues isolated about 29 hormones and determined their structure and chemical composition. One of the hormones they isolated, cortisone, was later discovered to be an anti-inflammatory agent useful in the treatment of arthritis. Reichstein was also involved in developing methods to synthesize the hormones he had discovered, among them cortisone and desoxycorticosterone, which was used for many years to treat Addison's disease.

      Apart from hormone research, Reichstein is also known for his synthesis of vitamin C, a feat achieved about the same time (1933) in England by Sir Walter N. Haworth and coworkers. In the latter part of his career, Reichstein studied plant glycosides, chemicals that can be used in the development of therapeutic drugs. He was awarded the Copley Medal of the British Royal Society in 1968.

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Universalium. 2010.

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  • REICHSTEIN, TADEUS — (1897–1996), Swiss organic chemist, endocrinologist, and 1950 Nobel laureate. Reichstein was born in Wloclawek, Poland, and his family moved to Zurich in 1908. He became professor of organic chemistry at Zurich in 1934 and in 1938 joined Basle… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Reichstein , Tadeus — (1897–1996) Polish–Swiss biochemist Reichstein, the son of an engineer, was born in Wloclawek, Poland, and educated at the Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, where he obtained his PhD in 1922. After some years in industry, Reichstein… …   Scientists

  • Reichstein,Tadeus — Reich·stein (rīkʹstīn , rīKHʹshtīn ), Tadeus. 1897 1996. Polish born Swiss chemist. He shared a 1950 Nobel Prize for discoveries concerning the hormones of the adrenal cortex. * * * …   Universalium

  • Reichstein, Tadeus — (b. 1897)    Swiss organic chemist and Nobel laureate, 1950. Reichstein was born in Poland and brought up in Switzerland. In 1933 he and his colleagues synthesized ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and in the same year he began his major work, isolating …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Reichstein, Tadeus — (b. 1897)    Swiss chemist. Born in Poland, he grew up in Switzerland. In 1938 he became head of the Institute of Pharmacy at Basle University. In 1950 he shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine and Physiology …   Dictionary of Jewish Biography

  • Reichstein, Tadeus — ► (n. 1897) Químico suizo. Fue premio Nobel de Medicina y Fisiología en 1950, compartido con E. C. Ken dall y P. S. Hench, por aislar hormonas cristalizadas, entre ellas la cortisona …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Reichstein — Tadeus …   Scientists

  • Reichstein — Reichstein, Tadeus …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Tadeus Reichstein — Tadeus Reichstein …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Tadeus Reichstein — (Włocławek (Polonia), 20 de julio de 1897 1 de agosto de 1996) nació en el seno de una familia judía en Polonia. Estudió Medicina en la Universidad de Zúrich. Posteriormente se tras …   Wikipedia Español

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