Gelber, Jack

Gelber, Jack
▪ 2004

      American playwright (b. April 12, 1932, Chicago, Ill.—d. May 9, 2003, New York, N.Y.), broke new theatrical ground in 1959 with his controversially raw and realistic play about drug addiction, The Connection. Although the plays he later wrote did not have the impact of his first effort, he had a successful career as a director and teacher.

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▪ American playwright
born April 12, 1932, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
died May 9, 2003, New York, New York

      American playwright known for The Connection (performed 1959, published 1960), and for his association with the Living Theatre (Living Theatre, The), an innovative, experimental theatre group.

      After graduating from the University of Illinois in Urbana, Gelber began working with the struggling Living Theatre (Living Theatre, The) group in New York City. His first play, The Connection, is historically important for its disintegration of the traditional relationship between audience and actor; it was a breakthrough for the Living Theatre, and both the production and the playwright received wide notice.

      Set in a slum apartment, the play was staged to suggest a naturalistic scene, with actors already on stage as the audience arrived (as if the audience were seeing life, not a play, in progress). This nontraditional technique was supported by other unconventional techniques: by presenting an actor as an audience member; by using the theatre aisles as a performance area; and by having the actors (who represented drug addicts) panhandle the audience during the play's intermission. The play was imaginatively and brilliantly produced by the Living Theatre, though for all its appearance of improvisation, it was tightly structured. The Connection won an Obie Award for best new play, and a film version appeared in 1962.

      The Apple (1961), Gelber's second play, also was written expressly for the Living Theatre. Its subject is the growing madness of an actor during a play rehearsal. With its second act written from the mad actor's point of view, this play too broke with the conventions of theatre. Less successful than its predecessor, The Apple had a run of 69 performances. Upon the departure of the Living Theatre for Europe, however, Gelber lost a performance group ideally suited to his drama.

      Gelber's Square in the Eye (1965), a multimedia theatre piece, and the rest of his later plays—including The Cuban Thing (1968), Sleep (1972), and Rehearsal (1976)—continued to challenge theatrical conventions, though none matched the popular or critical success of his first play. In addition to writing plays, Gelber taught drama at several American colleges and universities and wrote the novel On Ice (1964).

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Universalium. 2010.

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