Davis, Kingsley

Davis, Kingsley
▪ 1998

      American sociologist and demographer (b. Aug. 20, 1908, Tuxedo, Texas—d. Feb. 27, 1997, Stanford, Calif.), was a world-renowned expert on population trends; he coined the terms population explosion and zero population growth and promoted methods of bringing the latter about. Later, however, he came to be concerned about low birthrates in developed countries, fearing a shortage of educated leaders. Davis was educated at the University of Texas (B.A., 1930; M.A., 1933) and Harvard University (Ph.D., 1936). He spent the early years of his career teaching at Smith College, Northampton, Mass. (1934-36), Clark University, Worcester, Mass. (1936-37), Pennsylvania State University (1937-42), and Princeton University (1942-48). The publication of Human Society (1949) led to Davis's appointment to the directorship (1949-55) of the Bureau of Applied Social Research at Columbia University, New York City, and he followed that with 22 years (1955-77) at the University of California, Berkeley. From 1977 until his retirement in 1992, he was a professor of sociology at the University of Southern California, and from 1981 he was also a fellow of the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. Davis conducted studies in Europe, Latin America, and less-developed countries such as India, Nepal, and Bahrain and was a much-sought-after consultant and analyst. Among his books were A Crowding Hemisphere: Population Change in the Americas (1958) and World Urbanization 1950-70 (2 vol., 1969-72). In 1966 Davis was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, the first sociologist to be so honoured.

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▪ American sociologist
born Aug. 20, 1908, Tuxedo, Texas, U.S.
died Feb. 27, 1997, Stanford, Calif.

      American sociologist and demographer who coined the terms population explosion and zero population growth. His specific studies of American society led him to work on a general science of world society, based on empirical analysis of each society in its habitat.

      Davis received his B.A. from the University of Texas (1930) and his M.A. (1933) and his Ph.D. from Harvard University (1936). He began his teaching career in sociology as an instructor at Smith College (1934–36), then was assistant professor at Clark University (1936–37). He served as associate professor and later chairman of the department at Pennsylvania State University (1937–42). It was not until his associate professorship in anthropology and sociology at Princeton University that he completed his first and key work, Human Society (1949). Its publication brought him an invitation to teach and direct in the Bureau of Applied Social Research at Columbia University (1949–55).

      Davis' mastery of demography, demonstrated in his editing of World Population in Transition (1945) and afterward, became an increasingly important analytic tool. After leaving Columbia, Davis taught at the University of California at Berkeley (1955–77), where he was professor of sociology and comparative studies from 1971 to 1977. From 1977 he was professor of sociology of the University of Southern California.

      Davis led a social-science team sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation to 10 countries in Africa and directed studies of societies in India, Europe, and Latin America. The Population of India and Pakistan (1951), A Crowding Hemisphere: Population Change in the Americas (1958), and World Urbanization 1950–70, 2 vol. (1969–72), contain his social theory for a general science of human society.

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Universalium. 2010.

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