(Chinese; "sage" or "saint")

In Chinese belief, a mortal who attains extraordinary or supernatural powers by self-cultivation and serves as a model for others.

Confucius used the term to refer to exemplary rulers of the past.
(as used in expressions)
Adalbert Saint
Agatha Saint
Agnes Saint
Aidan Saint
Albertus Magnus Saint
Alexander Nevsky Saint
Ambrose Saint
Andrew Saint
Angilbert Saint
Anselm of Canterbury Saint
Ansgar Saint
Anthony of Egypt Saint
Anthony of Padua Saint
Aquinas Saint Thomas
Athanasius Saint
Augustine of Hippo Saint
Augustine of Canterbury Saint
Barbara Saint
Barnabas Saint
Bartholomew Saint
Basil the Great Saint
Becket Saint Thomas
Bede Saint
Bellarmine Saint Robert
Benedict of Nursia Saint
Bernadette of Lourdes Saint
Bernard de Clairvaux Saint
Bernardine of Siena Saint
Bolingbroke Henry Saint John 1st Viscount
Bonaventure Saint
Boniface Saint
Borromeo Saint Charles
Brébeuf Saint Jean de
Brendan Saint
Bridget Saint
Bruno of Querfurt Saint
Saint Boniface of Querfurt
Cabrini Saint Frances Xavier
Catherine of Alexandria Saint
Catherine of Siena Saint
Cecilia Saint
Christopher Saint
Chrysostom Saint John
Ciaran of Clonmacnoise Saint
Clare of Assisi Saint
Clement of Alexandria Saint
Columba Saint
Columban Saint
Cuthbert Saint
Cyprian Saint
Cyril of Alexandria Saint
Cyril of Jerusalem Saint
Denis Saint
Saint Denys
Dominic Saint
Drexel Saint Katherine
Dunstan of Canterbury Saint
Edward the Confessor Saint
Elizabeth of Hungary Saint
Francis de Sales Saint
Francis of Assisi Saint
Gelasius I Saint
George Saint
Godfrey of Saint Victor
Gregory I Saint
Gregory of Nazianzus Saint
Gregory of Nyssa Saint
Gregory of Tours Saint
Gregory VII Saint
Helena Saint
Hugh of Saint Victor
Ignatius of Antioch Saint
Irenaeus Saint
Isidore of Sevilla Saint
James Saint
Jerome Saint
Joan of Arc Saint
John of Damascus Saint
Saint John Damascene
John the Baptist Saint
Joseph Saint
Justin Martyr Saint
Kolbe Saint Maksymilian Maria
Saint Ladislas
Lawrence Saint
Saint Laurence
Leo I Saint
Leo IX Saint
Loyola Saint Ignatius of
Luke Saint
Malachy Saint
Margaret of Antioch Saint
Saint Marina
Margaret of Scotland Saint
Mark the Evangelist Saint
Martin of Tours Saint
Mary Magdalene Saint
Matthew Saint
Mesrob Saint
Saint Mesrop Mashtots
Mont Saint Michel
More Saint Thomas
Neri Saint Philip
Nerses I the Great Saint
Nicholas Saint
Saint Olaf
Olga Saint
Saint Helga
Palamas Saint Gregory
Patrick Saint
Paul Saint
Peter Damian Saint
Peter the Apostle Saint
Photius Saint
Pius V Saint
Pius X Saint
Plunket Saint Oliver
Raymond of Saint Gilles
Raymond of Peñafort Saint
Rose of Lima Saint
Saint Andrews University of
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre of
Saint Clair Lake
Saint Elmo's fire
Saint George's
Saint George's Channel
Saint Helens Mount
Saint John's
Saint Kitts Nevis
Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Laurent Louis Stephen
Saint Laurent Yves Henri Donat Mathieu
Saint Lawrence Gulf of
Saint Mark's Basilica
Saint Paul's Cathedral
Saint Peter's Basilica
Saint Vincent Cape
Saint Vincent Gulf
Saint Cloud porcelain
Saint Denis
Saint Exupéry Antoine Marie Roger de
Saint Gaudens Augustus
Saint Germain Treaty of
Saint Jean Lac
Saint John's wort
Saint Just Louis Antoine Léon de
Saint Léon Charles Victor Arthur Michel
Saint Malo Gulf of
Saint Maurice River
Saint Saë ns Charles Camille
Saint Simon Claude Henri de Rouvroy comte de
Sebastian Saint
Seton Saint Elizabeth Ann
Simeon Stylites Saint
Saint Stephen
Stephen Saint
Teresa of Ávila Saint
Theodore of Canterbury Saint
Thérèse of Lisieux Saint
Thomas Saint
Ursula Saint
Vardan Mamikonian Saint
Vincent de Paul Saint
Vladimir I Saint
Wilfrid Saint
Xavier Saint Francis
Crèvecoeur Michel Guillaume Saint Jean de
John of the Cross Saint
John the Apostle Saint
Montcalm de Saint Véran Louis Joseph de Montcalm Grozon marquis de
Northcliffe of Saint Peter Alfred Charles William Harmsworth Viscount
Saint John Perse
Marie René Auguste Aléxis Saint Léger Léger
House of the Hospitallers of Saint Mary of the Teutons
All Saints' Day
Cyril and Methodius Saints
Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
Sage Russell
Sager Ruth

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  Chinese free reed wind instrument consisting of usually 17 bamboo pipes set in a small wind-chest into which a musician blows through a mouthpiece. Each pipe has a free reed, made of metal (or formerly of bamboo or reed), that vibrates to produce sound when a finger hole on the pipe is covered. The acoustical length of each pipe is determined by a slot in the back of the pipe. The pipes, which are of five different lengths, are arranged in two triangular shapes to symbolize the folded wings of a phoenix bird. In addition to the traditional 13-, 14-, and 17-pipe sets, there are 21- and 24-pipe sets as well as a 36-pipe set based on the chromatic scale, with all 12 semitones. Other modern variants also exist. Images of sheng-like instruments exist from 1100 BC, and actual instruments survive from the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD).

      Several instruments were derived from the sheng, including the Japanese shō and the Korean saenghwang. The Chinese instrument plays melodies with occasional fourth or fifth harmonies (e.g., F or G above C), whereas the Japanese shō normally plays 11-note chords, a tradition that may have emerged from a misinterpretation of ancient court notations. Contemporary Chinese ensembles include the larger sheng which is capable of playing Western chords.

      Instruments similar to the sheng are found throughout Southeast Asia, notably the khaen of Laos and parts of Thailand and Vietnam. A sheng taken to Russia in the 1770s helped to stimulate the invention of European instruments using free reeds—including the accordion, concertina, harmonium, and harmonica.

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Universalium. 2010.

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