- requiem mass
Musical setting of the mass for the dead.(Requiem, Latin for "rest," is the first word of the mass.) The requiem's text differs from the standard mass Ordinary in omitting its joyous sections and keeping only the Kyrie, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei, which are combined with other sections, including the sequence Dies irae ("Day of Wrath"). The first surviving polyphonic setting is by Johannes Ockeghem; celebrated later requiems include those of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Hector Berlioz, Giuseppe Verdi, Gabriel Fauré, Johannes Brahms, and Benjamin Britten.
* * *▪ musicmusical setting of the Mass for the Dead (missa pro defunctis), named for the beginning of the Latin of the Introit “Requiem aeternam dona eis Domine” (“Give them eternal rest, O Lord”). The polyphonic composition for the requiem mass differs from the normal mass in that it not only includes certain items of the Ordinary—e.g., Kyrie, Sanctus, Agnus Dei (the joyful portions, Gloria and Credo, are omitted)—but also contains the Introit and Gradual from the Proper. A tract, followed by the sequence “Dies irae” (“Day of Wrath”), is substituted for the Alleluia and often is a major dramatic element in the composition. Sometimes responses and other text are added from the burial service, which follows the mass. Outstanding treatments of the requiem are those of W.A. Mozart, Hector Berlioz, Luigi Cherubini, Antonín Dvořák, Giuseppe Verdi, Anton Bruckner, Gabriel Fauré, and Maurice Durufle. Notable works not following the standard mass text are Benjamin Britten's War Requiem, based both on Latin prayers and on war poems by Wilfred Owen, and the Ein deutsches Requiem (German Requiem) of Johannes Brahms, based on scriptural passages.
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