personalismo

personalismo

In Latin America, the practice of glorifying a leader.

It often involves sacrificing the interests of political parties, ideologies, and constitutional government out of loyalty to a leader. Political parties throughout Latin America have often consisted of the personal following of a single individual, a fact reflected in the popular terms for the partisans. Members of Argentina's Justicialist National Movement, for example, are called peronistas (Peronists), for its charismatic founder, Argentine president Juan Perón, and the followers of Cuban leader Fidel Castro are fidelistas. See also caudillo.

* * *

▪ Latin American politics
      in Latin America, the practice of glorifying a single leader, with the resulting subordination of the interests of political parties and ideologies and of constitutional government.

      Latin American political parties have often been constituted by the personal following of a leader rather than by adherents of certain political beliefs or proponents of certain issues. Thus the popular term for such parties or their members has been often derived from their leaders—e.g., Peronistas (the followers of Juan Perón (Perón, Juan), Argentine president in 1946–55, 1973–74) or Fidelistas (the followers of Fidel Castro, Cuban leader who came to power in 1959). The archetypical demagogue and focus of personalismo in Mexico was General Antonio López de Santa Anna, who dominated Mexican political life between 1821 and 1855. The Dominican Republic and Ecuador in particular have suffered from personalismo, but the phenomenon has been rather pervasive throughout Latin American history.

      Personalismo is related to the phenomenon in Latin America called caudillismo, by which a government is controlled by leaders whose power typically rests on some combination of force and personal charisma (caudillos). During and immediately after the Latin American independence movement in the early 19th century, politically unstable conditions led to the widespread emergence of such leaders; thus the period is often referred to as the “age of the caudillos.” The flamboyant leader of the independence movement, Simón Bolívar (Bolívar, Simón), was one such ruler (of Gran Colombia, his ephemeral political creation). Although some nations, such as Argentina and Chile, developed more regular forms of constitutional government in the latter 19th century, caudillismo remained into the 20th century a common feature of Latin American states and prevailed in such countries as Argentina, during Perón's regime—as a form of political bossism—and in others as outright and brutal military dictatorship, as with the regime of Juan Vicente Gómez (Gómez, Juan Vicente) in Venezuela (ruled 1908–35). The latter was a ruler in the Venezuelan tradition, following the pattern of such strongmen as José Antonio Páez, who controlled the country in 1830–46 and again in 1860–63. Among other well-known caudillos of the 19th century were Juan Manuel de Rosas of Argentina, Francisco Solano López of Paraguay, and Andrés Santa Cruz of Bolivia. In such countries as Argentina and Mexico, during periods of weak central government, regional caudillos operated in their own localities in much the same way as did those on a national scale.

* * *


Universalium. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Personalismo — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda El personalismo más allá de ser una corriente filosófica sistematizada, representa una corriente de pensamiento que tiene como centro de sí a la persona. Se distingue como una ideología que considera al hombre un ser …   Wikipedia Español

  • personalismo — sustantivo masculino 1. (no contable) Adhesión a una persona, a sus ideas o intereses: El personalismo es la ideología predominante en ese partido político. 2. (no contable) Dominio o protagonismo del individuo sobre el grupo o institución: El… …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • personalismo — s.m. [der. di personale1]. [comportamento di chi tende a far prevalere gli interessi personali] ▶◀ egocentrismo, individualismo. ‖ egoismo. ◀▶ ‖ altruismo …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • personalismo — s. m. 1. Ação de atribuir tudo a si. 2. Vício do que atribui tudo a si; individualismo. 3.  [Filosofia] Sistema fundado no valor específico, absoluto ou transcendente da pessoa …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • personalismo — 1. m. Adhesión a una persona o a las tendencias que ella representa, especialmente en política. 2. Tendencia a subordinar el interés común a miras personales. 3. Sátira o agravio dirigidos a una persona que se designa expresamente …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • personalismo — ► sustantivo masculino 1 Adhesión y trato favorable a una persona o a las ideas defendidas por ésta, en general en política. 2 Tendencia a conceder mayor importancia a los intereses personales que a los comunes. SINÓNIMO individualismo 3 Dicho… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • personalismo — {{#}}{{LM P30055}}{{〓}} {{[}}personalismo{{]}} ‹per·so·na·lis·mo› {{《}}▍ s.m.{{》}} {{<}}1{{>}} Adhesión a una persona o a las tendencias que representa: • He votado a ese partido por personalismo, no por el partido en sí.{{○}} {{<}}2{{>}}… …   Diccionario de uso del español actual con sinónimos y antónimos

  • Personalismo comunitario — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda El personalismo comunitario (P.C. en adelante) es una corriente filosófica que tiene tres características básicas: La preocupación por el problema de Dios en relación con el problema del hombre. Sin excluir a los no… …   Wikipedia Español

  • personalismo — per·so·na·lì·smo s.m. CO TS filos. 1a. dottrina filosofica che sostiene il fondamentale valore della persona intesa come principio ontologico Contrari: impersonalismo. 1b. teoria del filosofo francese Charles Renouvier (1815 1903) che difendeva… …   Dizionario italiano

  • personalismo — {{hw}}{{personalismo}}{{/hw}}s. m. 1 Dottrina etico politica che asserisce il primato dei valori spirituali della persona. 2 Tendenza ad agire in base al proprio interesse | Favoritismo …   Enciclopedia di italiano

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”