Drum used for inducing trances and for divination by Sami shamans.

It consisted of a wooden frame over which a reindeer hide was stretched; the hide was covered with designs representing spirits or deities. In divination, the drum was beaten with a hammer made of reindeer antler, causing a triangular piece of bone or metal called an arpa to move along its surface. From these movements the shaman divined the nature of an illness or learned the location of lost or stolen objects.

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▪ Scandinavian ritual drum
      magic drum used for trance induction and divination by the Lapp shaman, or noiade. The drum consisted of a wooden frame, ring, or bowl over which a membrane of reindeer hide was stretched. The hide was usually covered with figures of deities, tutelary spirits of the noiade, and otherworld localities, painted on with the juice of alder bark. Metal trinkets, pieces of bone, teeth, or claws might be strung on the underside of the drum or around its outer edges. When used for divination, the kobdas was beaten with a T- or Y-shaped hammer made of reindeer antler, which caused a triangular piece of bone or metal called an arpa to move along the surface of the drum. The arpa might be in the shape of a brass ring or even a frog representing the tutelary spirit of the noiade that went out to discover the things he wanted to know. From the movements of the arpa, the noiade divined the nature of illness and the location of lost or stolen objects. The use of the drum was limited to the Lapps, Voguls, and Ostyaks among the Finno-Ugric peoples, but similar divinatory practices with the aid of a sieve were known among the Finns and other Balto-Finnic groups.

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Universalium. 2010.

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