consonance and dissonance
- consonance and dissonance
Consonance is often described as relative "stability," and dissonance as "instability." In musical contexts, certain intervals seem to call for motion by one of the tones to "resolve" perceived dissonance. The most consonant intervals are generally recognized as the unison and octave, and the next most consonant interval as the perfect fifth. Consonance tends to reflect the early intervals of the overtone
series (which include, in addition to the octave and perfect fifth, the major and minor thirds and the perfect fourth), but many musical factors can affect the perception of consonance and dissonance.
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in music, the impression of stability and repose (consonance
) in relation to the impression of tension or clash (dissonance
) experienced by a listener when certain combinations of tones or notes are sounded together. In certain musical styles, movement to and from consonance and dissonance gives shape and a sense of direction, for example, through increases and decreases in harmonic tension.
Perception of individual chords and intervals as consonant or dissonant has varied through the centuries, as well as with individual composers. Before about 1300 the interval of the third (as C to E) was heard as dissonant and in theory, if not in practice, remained an “imperfect” consonance well into modern times. The interval of the second, on the other hand, dissonant by definition in the Western art tradition, appears to have no such connotations for Istrian folk singers. By and large, however, concepts of consonance and dissonance have remained fairly constant and can be discussed in terms of the physics of musical sound.
) can be described as ratios of the frequency of vibration of one sound wave to that of another: the octave a–a′, for example, has the ratio of 220 to 440 cycles per second, which equals 1:2 (all octaves have the ratio 1:2, whatever their particular frequencies). Relatively consonant intervals, such as the octave, have frequency ratios using small numbers (e.g.,
1:2). The more dissonant major seventh interval (e.g.,
C–B) has the ratio 8:15, which uses larger numbers. Thus, the subjective gradation from consonance to dissonance corresponds to a gradation of sound-frequency ratios from simple ratios to more complex ones.
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Consonance and dissonance — For the mental phenomena, see Cognitive dissonance. For the stylistic device often used in poetry, see Literary consonance. In music, a consonance (Latin com , with + sonare, to sound ) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as… … Wikipedia
Dissonance — has several meanings, all related to conflict or incongruity: Consonance and dissonance in music are properties of an interval or chord Cognitive dissonance is a state of mental conflict Dissonance in poetry is the deliberate avoidance of… … Wikipedia
consonance — /kon seuh neuhns/, n. 1. accord or agreement. 2. correspondence of sounds; harmony of sounds. 3. Music. a simultaneous combination of tones conventionally accepted as being in a state of repose. Cf. dissonance (def. 2). See illus. under… … Universalium
dissonance — /dis euh neuhns/, n. 1. inharmonious or harsh sound; discord; cacophony. 2. Music. a. a simultaneous combination of tones conventionally accepted as being in a state of unrest and needing completion. b. an unresolved, discordant chord or interval … Universalium
dissonance — dis|so|nance [ˈdısənəns] n [Date: 1400 1500; : Latin; Origin: dissonare, from sonare to sound ] 1.) [U and C] technical a combination of notes that sound strange because they are not in ↑harmony ≠ ↑consonance 2.) [U] formal lack of agreement… … Dictionary of contemporary English
dissonance — /ˈdɪsənəns / (say disuhnuhns) noun 1. an inharmonious or harsh sound; discord. 2. Music a simultaneous combination of notes conventionally accepted as being in a state of unrest and needing resolution (opposed to consonance). 3. disagreement or… … Australian-English dictionary
tuning and temperament — In music, the adjustment of one sound source, such as a voice or string, to produce a desired pitch in relation to a given pitch, and the modification of that tuning to lessen dissonance. Tuning assures a good sound for a given pair of tones;… … Universalium
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